Project Materials







1.1 The Study's Background

The primary symptoms of attention deficit disorder are inattention and impulsivity. A child's academic success is frequently dependent on his or her ability to pay attention to tasks, as well as teacher and classroom expectations, with minimal distraction. A student with this skill can obtain necessary information, assignments, and participate in classroom activities and discussions (Forness and Kavale, 2001).

If appropriate instructional methodologies and interventions are not implemented when a child exhibits behaviors associated with attention deficit disorder, the consequences may include difficulties with academics and forming relationships with his or her peers.

According to the US Department of (2004), children with attention deficit disorder and its associated conditions frequently have school problems such as underachievement, social skills difficulties, and low self-esteem. They may be subjected to teasing or bullying.

Because children with attention deficit disorder resemble their peers, it is not uncommon for educators to regard the disorder as an excuse for immature behavior rather than the neurobiological disorder that it is. Teachers and administrators may simply label the child as a troublemaker if no intervention is provided, and if the condition is not properly diagnosed and managed in the classroom, children may become isolated from their peer group and develop other problems such as depression.

As children grow older, the behaviors associated with attention deficit disorder change. A preschool child, for example, may exhibit gross motor overactivity by constantly running or climbing and switching from one activity to another.

Older children may become agitated and fidget in their seats, as well as play with their chairs and desks. They frequently fail to their schoolwork or work in a careless manner. Adolescents suffering from attention deficit disorder are more withdrawn and less communicative. They are frequently impulsive, reacting without regard for previous plans or necessary tasks and homework (Diller, 2002).

According to Slavin (2002), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder is a chronic, debilitating disorder that can affect many aspects of a person's life, including academic difficulties, social skills issues, and strained parent-child relationships. Previously, it was thought that children outgrew attention deficit disorder, but recent research suggests that 30-60% of affected individuals continue to exhibit significant symptoms of the disorder into adulthood.

When a child with attention deficit disorder receives frequent reinforcement or is under strict control, he or she may be able to focus. is also common in new situations or when interacting one-on-one. While other children may exhibit some of these behaviors on occasion, children with ADHD exhibit them more frequently and severely than other children of the same age (Olsen, 2003).

Students with attention deficit disorder learn best when they are exposed to a carefully structured academic lesson”one in which the teacher explains what he or she wants children to learn in the current lesson and places these skills and knowledge in the context of previous lessons. Effective teachers anticipate what students will learn and how they should behave during the lesson (Osman, 2000).

Effective teachers periodically question children's understanding of the material, probe for correct answers before calling on other students, and identify which students require additional assistance in order to conduct the most productive lessons for children with attention deficit disorder. Transitions from one lesson or class to another are especially difficult for students with attention deficit disorder, according to teachers. These children are more likely to respond and stay on task when they are prepared for transitions.

To teach students how to control their behavior, effective teachers employ a variety of behavioral intervention techniques. Verbal reinforcement of appropriate behavior is perhaps the most important and effective of these. The most common type of verbal reinforcement is praise, which is given to a student when he or she starts and finishes an activity or exhibits a specific desired behavior.

phrases like “good job” encourage children to behave appropriately. Effective teachers frequently praise children with attention deficit disorder and look for a behavior to praise before, not after, a child becomes distracted.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Normal preschool children frequently exhibit poor concentration, high levels of activity, and impulsiveness. According to the findings, children with attention deficit disorder may continue to stand out in Nigerian schools. However, complications such as delayed development, oppositional behavior, and poor social skills may also be present.

When a child does not respond to ordinary parental requests and behavioral advice at this stage, parental stress can be extremely high. Work with preschool children and their caregivers has been shown to improve parent-child interaction and reduce parental stress.

According to studies, teachers' perceptions of working with preschool children are low, and many of them have little or no knowledge of working with children with this challenge.

As a result, this study investigates teachers' perceptions of children with attention deficit disorder in pre-schools in Yaba, os State.

1.3 The Study's Objective

Teachers' perceptions of children with attention deficit disorder in pre-schools in Yaba Local Government, os, will be investigated in this study. The study specifically aims to:

To investigate the impact of attention deficit disorder in the pre-school classroom.
To investigate the impact of attention deficit disorder on children's academic performance in Early Childhood classrooms.
To investigate how pre-school children perceive the difficulties associated with attention deficit disorder.
To investigate the psychological impact of ADHD on early childhood classroom performance.
1.4 Research Proposals

In evaluating the study's purpose, this research project intends to answer the following questions:

The following will guide the study:

How will attention deficit disorder affect the pre-school classroom?
To what extent will children's academic performance in Early Childhood classrooms be impacted by attention deficit disorder?
What are the perceived difficulties of pre-school children with attention deficit disorder?
What psychological impact does attention deficit disorder have on classroom performance in early childhood?
1.5 Hypothesis of Research

For the study, the following hypothesis was intended to be used:

Ho: There is no statistically significant link between attention deficit disorder and pre-school classroom performance.

H1: There is a link between attention deficit disorder and early childhood classroom performance.

1.6 Scope of the Research

Teachers' perceptions of children with attention deficit disorder in pre-schools in Yaba Local Government, os, will be investigated in this study. The study's variable scopes are attention deficit disorder and pre-school education, with the geographical scope limited to Private Nursery Schools in Yaba, os.

1.7 Importance of the Research

The study's significance stems from the hope that the findings will be useful to:

The Ministry of , where the research could be used to better understand the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in early childhood classrooms.

Once again, it will allow public and private schools to plan systematically for effective monitoring and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in . Other education stakeholders (parents, students, lecturers, support staff, donors) will use the study as a checkpoint to prevent similar events in the future.

The study assists academics in reducing or carefully monitoring children's symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that may be detrimental to their mind in order to avoid anti-social development or behavior.

1.8 Operational Terminology Definition

Early Childhood (ECE) is a branch of education theory that relates to the formal and informal teaching of young children up to the age of about eight.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioral disorders that primarily affect children and include symptoms such as poor concentration, hyperactivity, and learning difficulties.

Preschool: A preschool is an educational establishment or learning space that provides to children aged three to five s old prior to the start of compulsory education at primary school.

A classroom is a learning space, a room where classes are held. Classrooms can be found in a variety of educational institutions, from preschools to universities, as well as other places where education or training is provided, such as corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations.

: The process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits, is referred to as education.



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