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To survive in today’s growing dynamic, highly competitive banking environment, banks must market their banking services so that they can serve their customers with a well-tailored package and creating programme to meet adequately the various needs of their customers and other company specific requirements.

Marketing begins when one social unit predicts, identifies, and designs a product or service feature to meet the needs of other social units. These efforts are performed in order to facilitate a transaction between competent social entities. U. Okafor (1994:9)

According to Philip Kofler, the marketing concept as a management orientation holds that the key to achieving organisational goals is ingrained in the organisation determining the needs and wants of the target market and undercutting itself to deliver the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than its competitors.

Bank marketing may thus be defined as the process by which banks influence and retain clients by inventing and providing services and ideas that provide banking benefits to those customers.

Marketing did not enter banks with a “marketing concept,” but rather with a “advertising and promotion concept.”

Banks were facing growing competition, and a few were hesitant to start on aggressive advertising people to a bank is easy, but converting them to loyal customers is tough, thus the prohibition of the marketing concept.

They had to create plans to gratify these clients while also attempting to provide a variety of financial and specialised services to them.

They attempted to implement numerous effective systems for effective marketing analysis execution and control (Kotler, 1994: 28).

The central bank of Nigeria (CBN) is in charge of determining the standards for the establishment of several classes of banks, which have defined their own service needs. Some examples are provided in the table below.


Bank’s name Service classification The nature of the financial necessity The nature of the services requested

Merchant bank NAL Banking on wholesale sales Accept large deposits from major investors. Provision of leans for long-term projects and ensuring their service.

Financing and merchant banking provided by the Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBC). Equity capital grants from the federal government and the CBN, as well as loan shortfalls to small and medium-sized businesses Underwriting of loans, project identification, and feasibility studies.

Commercial Union Bank of Nigeria plc Deposit of $200,000,000 is required as a capitalization fee. Loans and short-term credit facilities for the public in need

Bank for Industrial Development in Nigeria Assisting with industrial development The total value of assets is 50.4 billion naira. Provides credit and other services to businesses.

Commercial First Bank of Nigeria Plc A deposit of $200,000,000 is required as a capitalization fee. Loans and short-term credit facilities are made available to the public in need.

As a result of this, we can conclude that different types of banks provide different services, and commercial banks’ services are distinct because they meet the personal needs of their customers. A definition of commercial banks and their services will be provided on the basis of their uniqueness.

Commercial banks are those banks whose naira purpose is to grant short-term loans to individuals, businesses, and government agencies and channel them to more profitable investments (Okafor. U 1994 pg.10).

Commercial banks offer a variety of services to their various customers. They are distinguished by the provision of satisfaction and have the following characteristics.

(a) inseparability: Each service’s provider cannot be separated from the service itself.

(b) perishability: no matter how much business is generated on subsequent days, the service cannot be stored until later without incurring revenue loss.

(c) heterogeneity: The service varies because a customer cannot expect to receive the same level of service on each visit to his bank. As a result, the bank finds it difficult to standardise each unit of the same service package for different customers.

(d) immateriality: the services provided cannot be touched or felt. Commercialization of research discoveries.


Union Bank of Nigeria plc was founded in 1917 as a commercial bank in Nigeria under the name colonial bank. In 1925, the bank was renamed “Bardays” bank dominion colonial overseas,” also known as Bardays bank D.C.O. In 1969, the bank was legally incorporated in international limited of Loudon and was renamed Bardays bank of Nigeria limited.

Due to some national and poetical restructures, the bank adopted the new name Union Bank Limited in 1978, with 80% Nigerian and 20% foreign ownership. Bardays Bank plc later divested its 20% equity stake in Union Bank of Nigeria Limited by selling its 50.8 million ordinary shares to the Nigerian public.

As a result, Union Bank is now 100 percent owned by Nigerians. In 1970, the company was converted to a public company, and all of its shares were listed on the Nigeria stock exchange. In 1989, the bank’s name was changed to “UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC” due to socio-political and economic changes.

Union bank of Nigeria plc has its registered office of stallion plaza 36, marina Lagos. It currently has 28 branches and 11 area offices nationwide. The banks staff strength as at 30th September 1999, stood at 8,593 country wide. By the end of the 1999 financial year the bank deterred a profit after taste of # 3.1 billion showing as increase of 80% over the previous years sum of #1.7 billion.

Similarly under the same period there was a remark improvement with the company’s total assets which stood at # 126.2 billion. The bank, till date remains the most capitalized in the industry with its come capital at # 7.6 billion, a on salvation that corroborates the banks robustness and its ability to balance back from any adversity.

Union bank of Nigeria Plc provides a full range of normal commercial banking services. As a financial service conglomerate, the bank operates a merchant banking outfit recently represented union merchant bank limited and the primary mortgage institution known as union house savings and loans LTD. In addition, it operates an international money transfer service called rage

To achieve a, corporate repositioning that will match the new millennium, Union bank of Nigeria Plc and re-equipping of its staff and branches to fit into the new culture of technologically driven, anywhere banking.

It is this need to be customer – focuses more flexible that the bank embarked, in 1999, its business process improvement. (BPI) project code-named the stallion- 2000 project. These positive indices underscore the public confidence in the bank in discharging its care functions under high conditions of risk and banking fragility.

Banks have come to realize that they can only remain in business, profitability if they give to the custom what he wants, when he want it and at an affordable competitive price. According customer need to be informed and convinced that a persecutory bank has facilities that help provide extra ease and comfort to customers.

For instance, most banks provide computerized identity cards through which customers could withdraw money even from far off locations bank office. Some commercial bank also have introduced weekend (Saturday) banking as extra services to their customers. They as well make their interest rate flexible for certain categories of customers.


In Nigeria. The challenge of selling commercial bank services trans

grown because effecting marketing tactics have basically not been employed to the marketing of these services till now. Ours the years there has been serous competition-amongst banks over deposit of bank customers and this has led to a number of developments in the services given by these commercial banks. In spite of these innovations introduces into the system, the bank still need to educate the consumer of the enter services it offers.

Okwudike (1982), speaking on the Nigerian banks addressed the question: How often have the banks used promotional activities to bring the client into the awareness of their services. It is due of this unawareness that people lack good banking culture and as such,

they would rather keep their money with themselves believing it to be more safe than making use of the financial services available for them. A few illustration of various methods commercial banks bank services is faced with specific challenges that militate against. These difficulties include.

1. Inadequate portfolio financing for customer: These portfolio funding comprise loans, over drafts, fast payment to customers etc. These services are not correctly delivered to the clients many a time, because of inadequate sources of fund.

2. exorbitant interest rates: Interest rates of banks are so exorbitant that they do not famous a wide range of their consumers. Also due of the lack practicality of their interest rates, a wide range of clients do not benefit from their services and thus does not let the bank compare fairly with competitors

3. Public relations: Most commercial banks have yet to completely realise the fact that the status image of any bank is highly significant and that this can be improved or boosted tremendously with a strong public relations plan paired with the altitude of the personnel of the banks location.

4. Lack of research: For effective marketing of bank services, a lot of research work is required. It is quite regrettable though, that most commercial banks have not wholeheartedly come to integer research work in their activities.


The goal of this investigation comprises

1. To find out the extent to which insufficient portfolio dunging for client operate at Union bank Plc.

2. To study the extent to which high interest rate effect client not to benefit in their services.

3. To ascertains the extent to which public relations effect the application of marketing commercial bank in union garden avenue Enugu.

4. To find out the amount to which absence of research happens at union bank of Nigeria PLC garden Avenue Enugu


The scope of this study is restricted to the problems militating against

the effective marketing of commercial bank services and the prospects of effective marketing of commercial bank services utilising union Bank Nigeria, avenue, Enugu as a case study


For a researcher to be in perfect control of his research and thus have a good impact on his area of research there in need for the researcher to ask some basic questions bordering on the already felt problems

Hence to guide this study for research question were formulate as follows:

1. To what extent hast the inadequate portfolio funding for customer affected the banking operations of Union bank of Nigeria PLC, Garden avenue?

2. To what extents to when public relations effect the application of marketing commercial bank in Union bank, garden avenue?

3. What are the extents to which public relations effect the application of marketing commercial bank in union bank, garden avenue?

4. To what extent has absence of research occur at united bank of Nigeria PLC, garden avenue Enugu?


Ogili (1999:41) have claimed that null hypothesis must address the issue highlighted in a study questions, if it is not involved alone. Therefore to further test the result of the research questions to offer clarity and relevant findings.

The study’s hypothesis is that (HO 1) there is no significant difference (PLOS) between the mean perception of the consequence of insufficient portfolio funds for customer service operations at Union Bank Garden Avenue Enugu.

(HO2) There is no statistically significant difference (PLOS) in the mean assessment of the impact of high interest rates in banks on the operations of Union Bank of Nigeria PLC Garden Avenue Enugu.

(HO3) There is no statistically significant difference (PLOS) in the mean messaged effect of public relations as it relates to the activities of Union Bank of Nigeria PLC, Garden Avenue, Enugu.

(HO4) There is no significant difference (PLOS) in the mean perception of a lack of research on Union Bank of Nigeria PLC’s overall operations at Garden Avenue, Enugu.


This research work on the challenges of marketing commercial bank services will help a lot in tackling the problems that commercial bank services encounter, which are very important to the following.

1. Banking institution: In this regard, competent management bank services would make a significant contribution to resolving the issues confronting commercial bank services. As a result, the banking institution’s difficulties with distress will be decreased.

2. Government: It would be important to the Nigerian government for the purpose of creating successful economic strategies for the banking industries, as the government is a stakeholder through the Nigerian Central Bank.

3. Banking service users: The study will be important for banking service users. Solutions will be supplied if problems are uncovered during the research. This will increase consumer confidence in commercial banks. They will be able to bank without worry of losing their deposit. As a result, credibility can be attained.

4. Investment opportunities: Understanding the challenges of marketing commercial bank services in Nigeria will inspire investors to invest in Nigeria.

They must be investment in order for there to be investment in any economy. More importantly, it will have an impact on poverty alleviation by lowering unemployment.

5. Public education/enlightenment.

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