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TEACHERS PERCEPTION OF THE ROLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IBADAN

TEACHERS PERCEPTION OF THE ROLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IBADAN

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Guiding and directing people during decision making and other areas of human endeavor has been an age-long human practice. From childhood to old age, people are guided or, at least, assisted in one way or the other. Much of recent rhetoric is on guidance and counseling have focused on the objective of psychological growth which is to aid children/students to learn how to make more comprehensive decisions, facilitate personal development and meet the peculiar need of students for individualizes learning. These are a few of the often-cited objectives of guidance and counseling whose official creed can be found in nearly all standard text in the field or any statement of professional objectives (Okon, 2019).

Guidance and counseling is a continuing process throughout the educational career of a student. The development and management of an efficient guidance program in schools help to enhance the needs and total development of students. Staff members should identify the need of students so that the entire guidance and activities may be structured to meet their needs for total development and increased personal freedom, independence and confidentiality… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Statement of the Problem

Although the national policy for counseling education are often obsessed with more classroom/teaching activities to carry out their activities and have little convenience in implementing counseling programs in schools (Eyo et al., 2010).

However, Local Inspectorate for Education (Ibadan Local Government) does not conduct studies to assess academic counseling needs in secondary schools but relies on general information from the State Department’s Department of Research and Statistics.

As was observed by Okereafor (2017), the average teacher f today knows next to nothing about guidance and counseling nor is his school equipped with services of guidance counselor… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Research Objective

The purpose of the study would be to ascertain Teachers’ Perception of the Roles of Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools in Ibadan. The specific objective of the study is thus;

  • To highlight the determinants of the provision of guidance and counseling services in selected secondary schools… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Content in the chapter is focused on review the works of other authors on the subject of roles of guidance and counseling services in secondary schools. The review process contains literature from the globalized perspective of developed countries to the African context and Nigeria.

This literature review will also center on the importance, role, and functions of guidance and counseling in secondary school settings. Defining a literature review, Kombo (2017) posits that the idea of a literature review is the process of taking into account the conclusions and findings from other journals and publications related to the topic of interest.

This literature review is structured under the following headings: types of guidance services offered it secondary schools, challenges in the provision of guidance and counseling services in secondary schools, roles of guidance and counseling services in schools… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Theoretical Framework

The following are the theories relevant to the study.

  • Theory in Educational Administration

The uses of theory in education make it unequivocal for the administration to be able to relate every practice to theory. Administrative decisions are expected to be guided by theories, because practice and theory are inter-woven. Theory can be defined as a set of observed and tested rules or principles that help the administrations in understanding, interpreting or predicting events (Enyi, 2003). Nwankwo in Mgbodile (2003) opined that theory is a systematic and deductive way of thinking about reality in order to describe and understanding such reality.

Mgbodile (2003), the theory is a set of interrelated concepts, ideas, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relation among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

The System Theory  

The system theory holds that an organization is a social system made up of integrated parts. A system is a unit with a series of interrelated and interdependent parts, such that the interplay of any part affects the whole system. A system is, therefore, a structure with interdependent parts (Nwankwo in Mbgodile 2003).

Ukeje, (2002), a system refers to the integration of different components and relationships between them and their attribute, such that they form a functionally related whole… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Figure 2.1: Inputs-Outputs Model.

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Source: Weihrich, (2008)

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

 Historical Development and Need for Guidance and Counseling

According to Melville (1973), African education saw the need to provide guidance and counseling in schools for students, so that students will be exposed to important information so that they could make better decisions. Although some people claim that guidance and counseling were always part of the African heritage, the integration of guidance and counseling services into the education system began only in the late 1950s.

According to Melville (1973), guidance and in some African countries dates back to the 1950s in countries such as Nigeria, which have done a great deal of research on guidance and counseling.

Countries such as Botswana introduced guidance and counseling in 1963. However, guidance and counseling in African schools face many problems, including a lack of recognition of counseling as an integral part of education… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Types of Guidance

The purpose of the guidance and counseling sessions on Ibadan Secondary School students is to help in selecting the educational courses and professions, to help students to prepare for the next stage of education and training. They also serve to the platform to aid students to improve and maintain mental health (Phiri, 2006).

This section covers the literature on the different types of counseling services expected to be found in secondary schools. Experts agree that guidance and advice consist of four main components; educational, professional and personal-social services (UNESCO, 2002).

  • Vocational Counseling

According to Nkhata (2010), vocational counseling is defined as the process of helping an individual choose a career path. It is centered on helping people make decisions and choices about their future planning and career building. The goal behind helping young people to choose, prepare, and advance a profession is is so that they can take advantage of every opportunity for optimal growth of the individual.

Vocational counseling services help students choose the right professions after examining their strengths, limitations, training, and vocational qualifications. They are designed to prepare students for a particular career by choosing the right course and program… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Educational Guidance

This is the advice given to learners helping them make suitable decisions regarding education.

According to Mwamba (2011) reported that educational guidance services are important as a means to mitigate problems faced by students. It should also be provided at a crisis point when students with disabilities have difficulties in making choices on which subject combination is right and what mode of communication to use (Braille or Large prints).

Therefore, Educational guidance services have an essential role to play in making sure that student’s educational decisions are grounded in sound decisions and students are helped to develop effective self-management in education and career path… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Challenges in Providing Guidance and Counseling Services

Globally, time is one of the most important resources affecting the provision of school guidelines and child support services. In Ethiopia, Alemu, (2013) found that school reports do they do not have enough time to fully deal with educational, personal, and professional issues to children. Similar in the US, Smith et al. (2001), school counselors do spiritual tasks, perform administrative tasks, and are fully responsible for training for special needs work on case management and evaluation.

In Kenya, school counselors manage guidance and counseling services supplies for kids on evenings and weekends because they have just as many duties other teachers, do not spend much time on counseling and guidance for the children (Karangu, 2011).

Therefore, children in Kenya are likely to receive poor guidance, and counseling services as a school adviser are unlikely to establish a warm and trusting relationship with them. In contrast, in Botswana, guidance and counseling services for children are provided on a schedule (Stockton et al, 2010)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter deals with the research procedures taken in carrying out the study. It is designed under the following sub-headings: research design, the population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation for data collection, validation of the instrument, pilot study, and reliability of the instrument, the procedure for data collection and procedure for data analysis.

Research Design 

A study design is a plan that explains the basic structure of the study.  It provides the procedural outline for the conduct of the study (Amedahe, 2004). The design of this study was a descriptive survey design that aimed at Assessing the Role of guidance and counseling on Students‟ Service Delivery in Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Oyo Nigeria.

Descriptive survey design according to Ali, (2006) is a study mainly concerned with describing and explaining events as they are without any manipulation of what is being observed.

As a matter of fact, this design is considered for this study, because it investigates the teachers’ opinion on the role of guidance and counseling in secondary schools Students‟ Service Delivery in Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Oyo Nigeria… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Population of the Study

According to Fraenkel and Warren (2002), population refers to the complete set of individuals (subjects or events) having common characteristics in which the researcher is interested.  For the purpose of this study, the population consisted of all principals, teachers, and students of secondary schools in Ibadan.

Available statistics showed that there are twenty – one (21) secondary schools, one thousand four hundred and seventy-six teachers (1,476), and twenty – one thousand two hundred and forty-six (21,246) students in secondary schools in Ibadan… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Presentation of Demographic Information

  • Age of Respondents

From the demographic information on the age of teachers, it can be concluded that more population of youth venturing into the teaching profession. This can be attributed to the fact that the young population consists of about 70% of the entire population of the country. The table shows more population of youth venturing into the teaching profession. This can be attributed to the fact that the young population consists of about 70% of the entire population of the country.

Table 4.1 below indicates the age range of teachers in the selected schools. Out of the total number of respondents, 10.71% were aged less than 30 years 39.29 % were aged between 30 to 39 years, 25 % of respondents were aged between 40 and 49years, 17.86% were aged between 50 and 59years and 7.14 % were aged 60 years and above.

Table 4.1 Age of Respondents

Age Distribution Number of Respondents %age (%)
Under 30 30 10.71
30 – 39 110 39.29
40 – 49 70 25
50 – 59 50 17.86
60 years and above 20 7.14
Total 280 100

Source: Field Data, March 2020.

  • Sex Distribution of Respondents

Further information on the demographic characteristic of the respondent shows a higher number of female teachers compared to the male counterparts.  As seen in table 4.2, 60% of the respondents are females whiles the remaining 40 % of the respondents are males.

Table 4.2. Gender Composition of Respondents

Gender Number of Respondents Percentage (%)
Female 168 60
Male 112 40
Total 280 100.0

Source: Field Data,

Discussion

This study was aimed at examining Teachers’ Perception of the Roles of Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. It objectives were to assess the determinants of the provision of guidance and counseling services in selected secondary schools,  the extent to which guidance and counseling services been implemented in secondary schools, and the perception of teachers on the role of guidance counseling.

However, to give a general description of the respondents on the issues raised, frequencies and simple percentages were used. The following are discussions arising from the major findings of the study… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The purpose of the study would be to ascertain Teachers’ Perception of the Roles of Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools in Ibadan. The specific objective of the study is thus;

Introduction

This study has focused on Assessment of Teachers’ Perception of the Roles of Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Oyo state. This chapter is discussed under the following headings:

  • Summary of the study;
  • Conclusions;
  • Recommendations; and
  • Suggestion for Further Studies.

Summary 

The first chapter sets the tone and direction of the study. It introduced the background to the study and described the problems the researcher investigated. Seven objectives and research questions were set to guide the researcher.

Its objectives were to assess highlight the determinants of the provision of guidance and counseling services in selected secondary schools, the extent to which guidance and counseling services been implemented in secondary schools, and examine the perception of teachers on the role of guidance counseling… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Conclusion

Based on the findings in line with the objectives, the study found that guidance and counseling were to a great extent provided in secondary schools.

Despite almost all respondents acknowledging the availability of GC officers in schools, the conclusion from the results of the study was that the Guidance Counselling offices were not conducive for effective delivery in public schools because, they were always clouded, small and other facilities were lacking.

As regards to factors affecting the provision of guidance and counseling in secondary schools, it was clear from the findings that there were many factors that hinder effective guidance and counseling delivery… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Recommendations

Based on the findings and in line with the study objectives, the following recommendations were made.

  1. The Ministry of Education Science Vocational Training and Early Education and the Teaching Service Commission should come up with clear policy guidelines on appointments, training of counselors, workload, remuneration, and responsibilities of school counselors… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

REFERENCES

Abid, H. (2006). Effect of guidance services on study attitudes, study habits, and academic achievement of secondary school students. Bulletin of Education & Research, 28(1), 35-45.

Abrams, L. & Gibbs, JT. (2000). Planning for change: school-community collaboration in a full-Service elementary school. Urban Education 35(1):79–103.

Alemu, Y. (2013). Assessment of the provisions of guidance and counseling services in secondary schools of East Harerge Zone and Hareri Region, Ethiopia. Middle  Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research 2:28–37.

Alutu, A.  & Azuka, G. (2006). The guidance role of the instructor in the teaching and learning process. Journal of Instructional Psychology 17(2):157–164.

Amir, A., & Latiff, M. (1984) Guidance and Counseling in Malaysian Schools: A Review and White Women: Assumptions, Conceptualization, and Interventions from an  Ecological

Armstrong, F. & Barton, L. (2007). Policy, experience and change, and the change for education: The case of England, in Policy, experience, and change: Cross-cultural reflections on education edited by L Barton &F Armstrong. The Netherlands: Springer Publishing.

Arthur, N. (2003). Preparing international students for re-entry transition. Canadian Journal of Counselling 37(3). 23-56

Ayieko, J. S.(1988). Solving discipline problems in Kenyan secondary schools. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Baker, S. B., & Gerler, E. R. (2001). Counseling in schools. In D. C. Locke, J. E. Myers, and E. Herr (Eds.), The Handbook of Counseling, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bardhoshi, G. & Duncan, K. (2009). Rural school principals’ perceptions of the school counselor’s role. The Rural Educator, 30(3), 16-24.

Bardo, H.R, Cody, J.J. & Bryson S. L (1978). Evaluation of guidance programs: call the question. In personal and guidance Journal, 57,p.204-208

Barki.B.G. & Mukhopadyay,B. (1989). Guidance and Counseling. New Delhi: Sterling publishers Pvt.Ltd.

Bauer, S.R, Sapp, M. & Johnson, D. (2000). Group counseling strategies for rural at-risk high school students. High School Journal 83(2):41–51.

Baysal, A. (2004). The Main Service Types in Psychological Counseling and Guidance). (A.Kaya, Trans.). Ankara: AniYayincilik.

Beale, A.V. & McCay, E. (2001). Selecting school counselors: What administrators should look for in prospective counselors.Clearing House, 74, 257-261.

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

(Get the Complete Chapter One To Five Project Material)

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