ROLE OF NON GOVERNMENTAL organizations IN PEACE BUILDING IN MAIDUGURI
ROLE OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PEACE BUILDING IN MAIDUGURI
Peace is the most important virtue in Maiduguri, a town in Bornu state, Nigeria. Peace is the most precious public commodity, yet it is also the most difficult to obtain (Francis David, 2006). This four-year insurgency (2009-2014) has claimed lives and hindered economic activity in several districts of Maiduguri.
Bokoharam's actions have had a terrible impact on Maiduguri, resulting in the loss of human and cattle lives, suffering, the destruction of infrastructure and public/private facilities, and the interruption of economic/socio-economic activity such as agriculture and trade. This crisis has jeopardised not just Maiduguri's internal peace and security, but also the peace in Nigeria and beyond.
The fact that most of these insurgency-affected areas lack the will to end this social charade and have fallen victim to continuous usury and subtle manipulation by politicians who take advantage of this situation to engage in shady deals like kidnapping and arm deals using insurgency as a cover is particularly concerning (Chiedu, 2013).
Peacekeeping has thus become the most serious task confronting Nigeria in general, and Maiduguri in particular. This is due in part to the feudal leadership system, which emphasises absolute acquiescence to authority without challenge, bringing with it ineffective terror control measures.
Despite the efforts of the government, through its institutions such as the military forces, religious bodies, NGOs, and so on, to quell the excesses of insurgency in Maiduguri, peace has remained elusive, and sustainable development has ceased.
On that basis, this initiative will strive to demonstrate the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in peacebuilding in Maiduguri.
1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Although insurgency is difficult to describe, it can be characterised as the use of force, generally violent, to coerce a target population to adhere to the terrorists' will (Asika,4:2009). Insurgency is designed to elicit or maximum terror and notoriety, with little regard for combatants or noncombatants in a war.
There is no legally agreed-upon definition of “insurgency,” but a recent United Nations (UN) document defines it as “any act intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or noncombatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organisation to do or refrain from doing any act.”
The term ‘insurgency' is emotionally and politically charged, especially when it refers to problems of national freedom and self-determination. Political, intellectual, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious, and ecological factors all play a role in insurgency. The taxonomy of insurgency, including triggering causes and concerns, is currently being studied in depth.
The question of whether the one witnessed in Maiduguri can be reduced to a type is an intriguing one, but for the purposes of this work, the key concern is the prospect of insurgency. insurgent is one of the goals of organised terrorism, and terrorism is one of the insurgent techniques.
States may deploy both terrorism and insurgency in their domestic operations. Terrorism and terrorist tactics are components of insurgent strategies and tactics. The operational techniques are essentially guerilla warfare in nature. The goal is to frighten, frustrate, and instill fear, impending danger, and a lack of hope in order to cripple or inhibit all elements of human activity and regular livelihoods.
Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, MEND, and, more recently, Jama'atu Ahlissunnah Lidda'anati Wal Jihad are current instances of worldwide and local Nigerian terrorist networks.
Until recently, it was assumed that Nigerian terrorist action was motivated by ethnocentric concerns. Currently, there appears to be a strong religious component to the Maiduguri conflict.
A few of the previous experiences merit consideration here as a reference in judging the type, trajectory, and intensity of the current campaign, as well as the involvement of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in peace building in Maiduguri.
1.3. STATEMENT OF THE problem
Previous study on the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in peace building in insurgency-affected areas, particularly Maiduguri, demonstrates that there is no government that can take on the weight of peace building in the form of aid on its own.
Among the different actors involved in these processes are nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), which play a critical role in creating and sustaining basic services such as assisting refugees and internally displaced people and contributing in the strengthening of societies.
NGOs are increasingly working “in the field,” giving humanitarian aid and development help in post-terrorist areas such as Maiduguri. They face numerous major obstacles when carrying out their duties. Insurgencies frequently restrict them access to persons in need, terrorist organisations demand payoffs, and local violence jeopardises the safety and even the lives of field personnel.
Donors also put these NGOs under political pressure, reducing their neutrality. Nongovernmental Organisations have numerous hurdles in carrying out their missions, many of which are the result of insurgent activity. They must choose between negotiating with terrorists to deliver help and maintaining their independence and impartiality.
Because they cannot deal with terrorist-affiliated groups, several Nigerian agencies, such as WACOL, only work with local partners. The Red Cross has resorted to armed escorts and has delegated assistance distribution to the Movement for Peace in Maiduguri (MFPIM) and Africa Awake.
Although impartiality is important for the long-term operation in Maiduguri, humanitarian aid organisations feel compelled to compromise these principles in order to get aid access, according to Osueke (2006).
1.4.OBJECTIVES OF research
With the recent wave of insurgency dealing a heavy blow to Maiduguri, both economically and socially, this research will strive to emphasise the issues of insurgency. Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), their involvement in peacebuilding in Maiduguri, and the road forward.
The following will be investigated in order to attain the goal of this research:
To assess the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in peacebuilding.
To investigate the effectiveness of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in promoting peace in troubled areas of the North East.
Identifying the next steps for non-governmental organisations in the peacebuilding campaign.
The following research questions were utilised as a guide in reaching the aims of this study endeavour in order to meet the objectives listed above:
What are the functions of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in peacebuilding?
How effective have non-governmental organisations been in promoting peace in Maiduguri?
What is the next step for non-governmental organisations in the peacebuilding campaign?
1.6. RESEARCH THEORY
To address the issues raised in the study questions, the following hypotheses are proposed:
Ho: Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are ineffective in their efforts to promote peace.
H1: Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are ineffective in their efforts to promote peace.
1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
researchers and academicians will benefit from this study endeavour. It will be of immense assistance to governments and their agencies in combating insurgency and the issues that it brings.
The researcher's findings and recommendations will serve to highlight the significance of Nongovernmental Organisations in peacebuilding, as well as the limitations of their work.
It will also be easily accessible to international organisations that may require information about how NGOs work in Maiduguri.
1.8.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is mainly concerned with the role of Nongovernmental Organisations in peacebuilding in Maiduguri. It also addressed the difficulties of insurgency and how they affect the operations of non-governmental organisations.
Another research field influenced by the outcomes of this study is peace building.
1.9.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research was completed on a tight deadline. The time between lectures and private studies was limited.
Another restriction encountered by the researcher was the delay in collecting data from the various respondents. Due to their work schedules, the majority of respondents were unable to complete the questionnaires. This almost caused a delay in the process.
1.10.DEFINITION OF TERMS
Insurgency: An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority (for example, one recognised by the United Nations) in which the rebels are not recognised as belligerents.
Peace Building: Peace building is a process that aims to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing the core causes and effects of conflict via reconciliation, institution building, and political and economic restructuring.
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
PROFILE OF AN ORGANISATION
Action Aid works with impoverished individuals in over 40 countries worldwide. Our mission is to eradicate poverty. We believe in doing things in a unique way. We know that given the correct opportunities, disadvantaged people will discover their own solutions – and create new lives for themselves.
Aid in Action Nigeria began programming operations in January 2000, following a country assessment that revealed poverty in the midst of wealth. We started working then after signing a Country Agreement with the Federal Republic of Nigeria's National Planning Commission. Our activity is currently dispersed across the federation's 26 states.
Collaborate with the government and its institutions to advance laws, policies, and practices that protect the rights of impoverished and marginalised populations.
Collaborate with organisations to promote responsible, democratic, and transparent governance, as well as pro-poor policies and programmes.
Improve women's and girls' access to decision-making, resources, and justice at all levels.
Improve the ability of disadvantaged and excluded people and communities to influence policies and practices affecting their rights.
Strengthen ActionAid Nigeria's and partners' structures, systems, and procedures to ensure accountable, effective, and dynamic operations.
AAN's Vision is to envision a Nigeria free of poverty and injustice, where everyone has the right to live a dignified life.
The purpose of Action Aid Nigeria is to work with the poor and excluded to reduce poverty and injustice in Nigeria.
Mutual respect, equity and justice, honesty and transparency, solidarity with the poor, powerless, and excluded, courage of conviction, independence from any religious or political party affiliation,
and humility in presentation and behaviour are the values that Action Aid Nigeria lives by, as demonstrated through the accountability, learning, and planning system (ALPS).
The Trusteeship Board
Prof. Patricia Donli, Chair; Prof. Sam Egwu, Vice Chair; Prof. U. A. Igun, Vice ChairKole Shettima, M.D.Mr. Nwachukwu, DavidComrade Dr. T. Agary Mr. Johnson IkubeJohn OdahOmotunde,
Mrs. Ellen-ThompsonJummai Umar-Ajijola, M.D.Inde Mallam Lawal AbdullahiMadame Hauwa Mrs. Ranti Bosede Daudu Evelyn Shekarau Abdu Hussaini, Dr.