RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND THE IMPACT ON SAFETY CULTURE IN SELECTED LAGOS MANUFACTURING FIRMS
This study investigates the impact of industrial safety management on the safety culture of employees. The specific objective of the study is to identify the relationship between industrial safety management and safety culture of employees, to identify the hazards encountered by employees in the Nigeria manufacturing sector, to highlight safety provisions for employees in the manufacturing industry, to determine how orientation and training influence safety management in manufacturing organizations, and to determine how safety issues were handled in the manufacturing industry. One thousand two hundred and twenty (1,220) individuals from the selected manufacturing firms in Lagos State, Nigeria, comprised the study’s population. Using the formula developed by Taro Yamane, a sample size of three hundred and one (301) was determined. The instruments used to collect data were a structured questionnaire and an interview. Utilizing a survey design, this study was conducted. The data was presented as frequency tables, and the Z-test and Friedman Chi-square were utilized to test the hypotheses. Physical and chemical hazards were the hazards encountered in the manufacturing industry, personal protective equipment is the safety provision for employees, orientation and training have significant influences on the implementation of safety management in the manufacturing industry, and safety issues in the manufacturing industry were managed by means of management control systems. The study suggests that safety policies and procedures be reviewed whenever operating conditions change in order to keep them relevant. Management should hire professionally competent and highly motivated safety officers rather than quacks and charlatans. The federal government should enact and enforce laws that impose harsher penalties on labor employers who fail to implement safe work practices or report workplace accidents.
Introduction to Chapter 1
THE STUDY’S BACKGROUND
Major changes in the global economy and revolutionary service organizations, coupled with subsequent changes in working life and employee responsibilities, have created an urgent need to strengthen and adapt the tools and methods used to promote and protect safety, health, and the environment in manufacturing firms in the current business environment (Doe, 2004:450).
In the context of enhancing productivity and efficiency in Nigerian and international manufacturing companies, safety and quality continue to be of the utmost importance. In addition, the best practices of leading companies that are increasingly integrating safety, health, and environment management into their overall management system inspire optimism that the widespread adoption of this strategy will counteract a number of negative trends (Saurin, 2002: 335- 348). Safety, Health, and Environment legislation, as well as specific guidelines, require employers to provide a safe workplace and minimize employees’ exposure to hazardous substances in order to safeguard their health. The objective has always been to assume collective protection by controlling the release of the substance at its source, so that it does not reach the atmosphere and subsequently pose a health hazard (Evans, and Parkers, 2008 :12-1 7). In order to recognize this and other hazards, we must acquire the requisite knowledge of our working environment, as it is of the utmost importance for us to be safety-conscious in our daily activities, particularly in an industrial setting (Kenyo, 1999:29).
Every year, thousands of lives are lost, and countless others are maimed or injured due to accidents caused by carelessness, thoughtlessness, or lack of concern. Safety is essentially a matter of mutual care and regard for yourself, your coworkers, and the equipment you will be utilizing. Without this foundation, a suit of armor would not provide adequate protection (Harcourt, 1991: 155). Diverse sources on the topic of safety environment indicate that the safety environment in which a person resides has a significant impact on his behavior (Kadiri,2006:3).
In actuality, psychologists have demonstrated that safety environment is one of the two factors that determine an individual’s personality (Onwueme, 1994: 32).
Moreover, safety takes precedence over all other concerns. Environmental management is therefore dominated by its emphasis on safety.
The environment will not compromise the capability to perform a task safely. If a task cannot be completed in a safe manner, it will not be performed (Doe, 2006: 150).
Today, safety on the job and in its surroundings is a topic that receives global attention.
There is a high incidence of industrial accidents in the world today, which is accompanied by health issues, absenteeism, poor performance, and depression. Every employer is required by law to provide a safe working environment for employees who perform hazardous work (Fulton, 2008: 49). Everyone would rather work in a safe and healthy environment. If conditions are unhealthy, productivity will suffer. Frequently sick and absent employees can result in low employee morale. Not only does an unsafe and unhealthy work environment result in decreased productivity for the employer, but it also increases expenses in the form of medical costs and disability payments. Positive or negative effects of the safety environment on employee performance can be observed (Kadiri, 2006:5)
The new health and safety at work Act of 1974 was designed to heighten employers’ and workers’ awareness of the need to avoid accidents, injuries, and diseases. The Act states, “It shall be the duty of every employee while at work to exercise reasonable care for the health and safety of others who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work.” For instance, wearing safety glasses, grinding, marking hot metal, keeping passageways clear, etc (Krnyo,1997:31).
Therefore, it is the responsibility of the employer to provide adequate protective equipment and to maintain adequate machine guarding (Kenyo, 1997: 30). Providing the working conditions that will ensure the safety of employees on the job has become the primary concern of modern management. Protective shields are introduced in the form of precautions, such as safety glasses, safety boots, hand gloves, etc. Both as an individual and as a member of a community, everyone values safety. You place a high premium on individual and personal safety. The Boko Haram bomb scare at University of Ife and University of Ibadan resulted in stampeding at the two universities (Daily Sun 16th September 2011: 5). Your presence here today demonstrates that you and others value safety.
It can be a bit unsettling to consider all the actual dangers a person must face on a daily basis (George, 1999:15).
MILLIONS OF PEOPLE ARE EMPLOYED IN EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY, CONSTRUCTION, AND SCIENCE, AND THEY USE POWER TECHNOLOGY’S TOOLS, SO THERE ARE MANY SAFETY DANGERS IN THE MACHINE AGE. CONFRONTED WITH THESE DANGERS, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE FOCUS ON SAFETY BEGIN IN EARLY CHILDHOOD AND CONTINUE FOR A LIFETIME (Geller, 2004). (2001:15). The condition of safety is one in which the likelihood of an accident is minimized. Every accident results from a collection of unsafe conditions and unsafe actions. Over a period of time, an accident occurs due to the cumulative effect of this set of conditions (Daniel, 2006:34).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE CHALLENGE
Due to noncompliance with safety rules and regulations and ignorance of the imminent dangers associated with manufacturing organizations, work-related accidents and incidents are common and have a negative impact on worker productivity.
The issue of health and safety in the workplace is receiving global attention in today’s business organizations. In contrast, a lack of attention to safety management has always resulted in a high rate of industrial accidents, which hinders economic development due to low levels of productivity and output.
Thus, the focus of the study is on the impact of industrial safety management on the safety culture of Nigerian manufacturing employees.
1.3 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are among the specific aims of this study:
To determine the relationship between occupational safety management and employee
To identify the risks employees in the Nigerian manufacturing sector face.
To emphasize safety measures for workers in the manufacturing industry.
Determine how orientation and training affect the management of safety in the manufacturing sector.
Determine how manufacturing companies handle safety issues.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Keeping in mind the aforementioned objectives, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
What is the link between management of industrial safety and employee productivity?
What risks do manufacturing workers face?
What safety provisions are in place for factory employees?
How do orientation and training affect the management of safety in the manufacturing sector?
How were manufacturing industry safety concerns managed?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the purpose of guiding the research, the following alternative hypotheses are formulated.
There is a substantial connection between industrial safety management and employee satisfaction.
Physical and Chemical dangers are encountered during the production process.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), including safety helmets, safety belts, safety shoes, and hand gloves, are safety precautions for factory employees.
Hi: Orientation and training have a substantial impact on the safety management implementation in the manufacturing sector.
The manufacturing industry’s safety difficulties were mostly resolved by eliminating environmental risks.
1.6 IMPORTANCE OF THE EVALUATION
This study will be significant to safety managers, government, industry, and regulatory agencies since it will introduce them to contemporary safety management practices. This information will assist them to become risk-aware.
The study will assist the manufacturing industry to implement an effective safety management system in order to maintain a successful business.
Lastly, future researchers will find this study useful because it will act as a roadmap for future research.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
This study examines the topic of safety management. Framework Theoretical, Experimental study, Safety environment, Safety management awareness on a global scale, Risk in the workshop and application of sufficient controls, Impact of industrial safety management on efficiency, The influence of orientation and training on industrial safety management, Industrial, health and safety engineer duties, The use of the ILO-OSHA standard, Implementation of workplace Safety and health Occupational Safety and Health Management’s Impact on the Manufacturing Sector, danger identification and mitigation, Performance measurement and feedback in safety management, Safety provisions and personal protective equipment (PPE), and the economic benefits of implementing safety management.
For the purposes of this study, three manufacturing companies in Lagos State were chosen. The companies involved were ERISCO, Nigerian Breweries Plc, and Juhel Nigeria Ltd. Their selection was based on the length of time they had existed as manufacturing companies.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is limited by the following factors:
Due to time constraints, some locations where pertinent data could have been gathered were not visited.
Due to the expense involved, it was not possible to visit all locations where pertinent information could have been gathered.
ATTITUDE OF THE REPLIERS
Due to the absence of monetary compensation, a number of respondents had a negative attitude towards the study.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Accident: Any unforeseen occurrence that may cause injury or property damage. Any occurrence that has or could have resulted in injury, property damage, or job stoppage (Emenite: 2003).
Environment: Elements, Institutions, Systems, etc., whose activities and services are vital for the proper functioning of the organization, but are not under its control (Onwuchekwa: 1993).
hazard: a possible source of harm or threat to life (Bedford: 1996).
Management is the process of getting things done through and with other people in an effective and efficient manner (Robins and Decenzo: 2005).
All laws and regulations pertaining to the safety of a business’s operations, products, and employees (Kadiri: 2006).
Poisonous Compounds: These are toxic substances that are being released by industry (Emenite: 2003).
RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND THE IMPACT ON SAFETY CULTURE IN SELECTED LAGOS MANUFACTURING FIRMS