REMOTE PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM
REMOTE PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM
This thesis is about the remote transfer of medical records to a doctor over a GSM wireless communication link.
It specifically employs the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Short Messaging System (SMS). A nurse will take the records, which will be stored in the hospital database via a visual basic created user interface.
When the threshold for a certain parameter defined by the doctor is exceeded, an SMS alert is sent to the doctor indicating an emergency, to which the doctor responds with instructions for the carer to follow until he arrives.
On the doctor's visit, he can access the history of records collected during his absence for correct prescriptions for the patient, which is also maintained in the database. If a new patient is added, the record is automatically emailed to the doctor.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE study
People in rural and distant places around the world struggle to get timely, high-quality specialty medical care. Residents in these places frequently have access to subpar speciality healthcare, owing to the fact that specialist physicians are more likely to be concentrated in densely populated areas.
There is also the issue of a scarcity of experts, particularly those who manage chronic diseases in urban settings. Because chronic diseases account for more than 80% of primary care visits and two-thirds of medical admissions to hospital emergency departments,
effective disease management can result in improved health outcomes and quality of life. Controlling a parameter like blood pressure in persons with diabetes and hypertension,
for example, has been found to reduce mortality and the incidence of severe and costly consequences like renal and cardiovascular disease.
Because of the dynamic character of technical and scientific medical practises, health care systems are now altering. Health-care practitioners are quickly incorporating these technology into their processes.
Many aspects of medical practise can now be carried out when the patient and health care provider are geographically separated, because to advancements in computing and communication technologies. The distance between two people can be as close as across town, as far as a state, or as far as the world.
Remote patient monitoring is a relatively recent topic of study that allows medical personnel to remotely monitor a patient utilising various technological equipment.
It is primarily used to monitor chronic or specific disorders such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, among others.
These services can give equivalent health outcomes to typical in-person consultations, provide greater patient satisfaction, and are cost effective.
Monitoring a patient at home or at a clinic without the presence of a resident expert, using known devices such as blood pressure monitors, glucose metres, and so on, and passing the information to a carer, is a rapidly developing emerging service.
Primary Remote Diagnostic 3 is used in poor nations such as South Africa.
Consultation  not only monitors an already identified chronic disease, but also offers the potential to diagnose and manage the disease for which a patient would generally see a general practitioner. Remote patient monitoring can also be used in electrocardiography and radiology, to name a few applications.
These medical data can be transferred using a variety of telecommunication technologies, including standard telephone lines, ISDN, the internet, intranets, satellites, and mobile phones, to name a few.
This project involves the transmission of medical records taken remotely to a doctor over a GSM wireless communication link. It specifically employs the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Short Messaging System (SMS).
A nurse takes the records, which are then stored in the hospital database via a user interface created in Visual Basic. When the threshold for specific parameters established by the doctor is exceeded,
an SMS alert is sent to the doctor indicating an emergency, to which the doctor responds with instructions for the carer to follow until he arrives.
On the doctor's visit, he can access the history of records taken while his absence for correct diagnosis and prescriptions for the four patients.
The patient is also saved in the database. If a new patient is added, the record is automatically emailed to the doctor.
1.2 AIMS OF THE PROJECT
The primary goal of this initiative is to provide health care services to isolated populations and remote places such as military sites, ships, and the like. It also aims to reduce mortality rates, particularly in poor nations such as Nigeria, where the required competence is scarce.
The system should be able to drastically minimise the time it takes to provide people with health care. This system will alleviate the strain of inadequate healthcare.
This system's application can be expanded to areas such as fine-tuning the management and allocation of rural health care emergency services by transmitting images to key medical centres for long distance evaluation by appropriate medical specialists,
allowing physicians conducting clinical research to be linked together despite geographical separation, and sharing patients' records and diagnostic images.
In general, this initiative aims to transmit medical data for diagnosis or disease management, as well as health counselling by phone in emergency situations.
Finally, because the cost of a complete remote patient monitoring system that includes the sensors used to capture biometric data is very high,
this system goes a long way towards making remote monitoring accessible to the general public who cannot afford the cost of services rendered by those complete systems because they can take their readings manually.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE WORK
The system does not necessitate any prior computer knowledge for the user to implement. The only prerequisite is a basic understanding of the English language; it is simple to use. Medical measures are straightforward processes that everyone can perform following a few short explanations.
Furthermore, in a country like Nigeria, where there are few professionals, particularly those managing chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and so on, this method comes as a huge comfort to individuals in remote areas who can still access the expertise of those experts.
A recent event involved the evacuation of numerous doctors from a Nigerian city due to frequent kidnappings. As a result, individuals in the 6th district received inadequate health-care services.
locality. Doctors can still provide healthcare services to their patients from a secure place using a technology like this. This work will also serve to educate the public about the benefits of remote patient monitoring via mobile phones, which, according to a research conducted by the Boston University School of Public Health ,
has yet to be adopted by underdeveloped countries. The following benefits of employing a mobile phone as a health care intervention further justify this effort.
Low initial investment: – Living in a resource-poor environment is not an impediment to using a wireless system for a variety of cultural and economic reasons.
Mobile phones have a less pronounced “digital divide” along the socioeconomic gradient than other communication technologies such as the internet.
To make the system cheap to all, particularly those in Africa's rural villages, it was designed to be independent of the devices used to measure the required parameters.
Mobile phones are easier to use for persons with lower levels of skill.
User-friendly SMS: Pricing policies may improve specific mobile usage, particularly the use of short messaging service (SMS) text. Text messages are less expensive than phone calls, and they can reach people whose phones are turned off.
It is silent, so it can be sent and received in situations where a conversation would be impractical.
Payment methods: In developing nations, a prepayment system is employed, which entails purchasing cards that allow phone time ranging from five minutes to an hour.
Customers can use credit as they see fit over the course of a week, allowing them to keep track of their spending while also receiving a low-cost service. Even if the user's pre-paid outgoing call budget is exhausted, he or she can continue to receive SMS and calls.
As a result, the doctor does not need to have credit in his phone to receive notifications, and the system does not charge a high fee to transmit an alert.
Finally, the alarming increase in mortality in remote areas due to a lack of adequate monitoring by medical experts, particularly for chronic diseases,
justifies the need for a system that is not limited by distance as long as a telecommunication network is available in that area. Doctors spend less time travelling to see patients using this system, and 8
Spends more time treating them. It also means real-time monitoring without the need for a large personnel or capital investment.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE WORK
This system will be able to manually capture doctor-specified vital health data such as a patient's heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and plasma glucose level, which will be stored in the hospital database and transmitted to a doctor when a set threshold is exceeded for better disease management.
The technology will track patients with chronic or long-term illnesses, such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease, as well as stable victims.
It can gather critical information on a patient who lives a long distance away from a medical specialist. It can notify medical personnel if there is a critical change in the patient's condition.
The system will include a user interface built in VB.net through which the nurse or carer enters data into the system, which is then recorded in the database.
The database will contain a medical data manager (MDM) that will automatically compare new patient data to the patient's record and doctor's comments. If there is a troubling change in the patient's vital signs, call 9-1-1.
For example, if a hypertensive patient's blood pressure rises, an alert is sent to the doctor. This assures that a doctor or physician responds quickly to any emergency that arises.
All patient data is stored in the database. The workflow system manages overall system procedures, whereas the user interface dynamically formats and displays patient data. The SMS warning is delivered via a GSM modem connected to the computer.
1.5 OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT STAGES IN BLOCK DIAGRAM
The system is divided into five primary sections: the user who enters data, which in this case may be the caregiver/nurse, the user interface, which will be created in visual basic.net and will allow patient information to be fed into the Care-Giver or User inputting records,
Patient VDU Mouse CPU GSM Network DATABASE SUB-SYSTEM
GSM Phone of a Doctor GSM Phone of a Carer
GSM MODEM DOCTOR FIG1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM PROJECT OVERVIEW 10
the database by the user and through which the doctor accesses patient's record and feeds in his own comments, the database sub-system for the storage of patient's information,
the GSM interface through which information in the database is communicated to the doctor's phone which is the last sub-system for receiving SMS alerts by the doctor and also through which directives are sent to the carer.
1.6 ORGANISATION FOR PROJECT REPORT
The following is how the project work is organised: The first chapter will discuss the study's history, the work's goals and objectives, and the project's justification.
The scope of the job was followed by a block diagram overview of the project stages. The second chapter will provide a review of certain related literatures, as well as general principles, available technology, and applications of remote patient monitoring systems.
The chapter will conclude by summarising the latest technological advancements. In chapter three, the technique utilised will be outlined, and a system analysis will be performed based on the method chosen.
It will also include a detailed block schematic of the complete system. It will finish by examining the shortcomings of the current remote patient monitoring system. Chapter four eleven
We will be dealing with system design and specifications, as well as the design of input and output subsystems and the control subsystem.
The control software design statements, as well as the accompanying control algorithm and database architecture, will be covered in this section.
The fifth chapter of this study will include the implementation of the hardware and software designs, data-base implementation, system testing, and performance evaluation.
The chapter will conclude with the Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation, as well as the system implementation.
The last chapter (six) will summarise the project's accomplishments, state difficulties encountered and solutions to them, provide recommendations and suggestions for further improvement, conclusions, and contribution to knowledge.