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The Study's Context

The importance of teachers in any educational system cannot be overstated. Teachers are the ones who carry out and implement educational policies and curriculum.

As a result, whether there are flaws in educational processes and outcomes, teachers bear the brunt of the blame more than any other agent involved in educational activities.

Teachers, according to Adesina (1987), are at the center of Nigeria's educational system at all levels. Teachers continue to be the most important influencers of educational quality, whether at the primary, secondary, or levels. According to the updated National Policy on Education (1998), “no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers.”

Similarly, during the National Curriculum Association convention in 1969, the teacher was identified as the “Keyman in the entire educational programme.” The implication for educational policymakers in particular and society as a whole is that enough attention should be paid to teachers' welfare in all of its dimensions. As Edem (1987) points out, this should be the case:

The curriculum, no matter how well produced or properly interpreted, will fall short of our expectations unless it is implemented by instructors who are the product of its philosophy.

When instructors are left to their own devices to deal with the rigors of academic and, in some circumstances, administrative work, there is a significant likelihood that their efficiency and effectiveness will suffer. Worse, despite these rigors, they are inadequately motivated in terms of compensation remuneration.

“Education is not just for personal survival or to increase one's income or power over others,” writes Borton (1981), “but it is for enriching one's life for personal growth beyond survival and income.” While I agree with his point of view, the question is if it is also justifiable for instructors to utilize their meagre pay to provide school facilities, materials, and equipment required for effective school work to progress.

According to Byme (1981), if the response to this question is positive, the instructor may lose his early enthusiasm for teaching in search of something better.

Furthermore, the character of teachers awards them the reputation of being experts who know more than their students. This could include answering questions, correcting or verifying the pupils' work or statements. A constant in-service training course and the desire to broaden the teacher's breadth of expertise are required for him to stay an expert.

When there are little or no in-service training courses and other opportunities for teachers to broaden their expertise, it is inevitable that they will become inept. This is supported further by Wilbert (1978), who stated that the teacher's ability to stay up to date on new advancements in his profession,

as well as his ability to make creative and critical judgements about the main trends in his field, bear directly on his competency as an expert. In other words, if teachers are out of date and out of touch with their subjects, their efficiency is called into doubt.

Teachers' performance can be defined as their ability to carry out the following duties effectively and efficiently:

Suitable lesson planning

Teach the number of periods assigned on the timetable in a regular and punctual basis;

Keep a log of your teaching sessions.

Ensures the cleanliness of the classrooms and the surrounding environment;

Maintains discipline among his students both inside and outside of .

Check and any notes given to pupils on a regular basis.

Sets, marks, records, class assignments, exams, and examination scripts in a timely manner.

Both internal and external examinations must be properly invigilated.

Attends staff, P.T.A., and other meetings on a regular and punctual basis, and participates fully in them.

Marks the attendance register every day and keeps track of who is absent.

Looks out for the well-being of all students in the class.

Prepares the ongoing assessment booklet as well as the class master' sheet.

carries out any additional tasks assigned to him by the school authority.

Inadequate facilities, equipment, and materials, as well as a high teacher-student ratio, may diminish teachers' effectiveness and the performance level expected of an average learner. As a result, the kids would immediately experience the teachers' hassles.

Teachers may find it challenging to work successfully in an unfavorable school climate. The entire total of the values and attitudes held by those in the school is the school climate. These include the interpersonal interactions that exist between the principal and teachers, as well as the relationships that exist between teachers and students and other individuals in the surroundings, as well as everything that the school reflects.

According to Ajetunmobi (2001), “despite hereditary germ plasma, there is a direct relationship between the environment and the intellectual development of the child.”

A child, for example, will perform well in a circumstance where there is a nice physical and material school environment. A school, on the other hand, whose tone is poor and prevents the child from experiencing experiential learning, whose physical plants are inadequate and, at times, very old and in poor condition, whose leadership is uninspiring, whose curriculum is too unwieldy, too narrow, or too shallow to provide efficiency of use, and where pedagogical considerations are non-existent, may produce a child with low academic achievement.

Furthermore, many students' truancy nowadays may have an impact on teachers' performance. Many kids, taking advantage of the fact that most schools are overcrowded and that absentees are rarely caught, leave school during the middle of the day. Others who were purposefully absent came up with other explanations the next day.

Furthermore, some students purposefully miss continuous assessment tests, leave their assignments undone, or refuse to attend lessons even when present in school, preferring to move from one class to another or remain in certain sections of the school.

Another teacher quality characteristic that may effect student learning and is indirectly tied to certification difficulties is teachers' experience. A teacher with many years of experience might illustrate his argument using many instances derived from his wealth of knowledge, allowing the students to better comprehend him. In other words, a teacher's experience may encourage him to acquire a high level of teaching ability.

He is capable of achieving the educational aim through the use of appropriate instructional methods and situations.

Statement of the Issue

A number of comments have been made about Nigeria's declining educational standards. According to all indicators, every critic on the subject accuses the teachers. In order to provide quality education in Edo State and Nigeria in general, this research will look at some of the elements that influence teachers' efficacy in our society and give answers to effective teaching in Edo State.

Research Issues

To address the issue of teacher ineffectiveness, the following questions will be addressed:

1. What are the elements impacting teachers' effectiveness in Edo State public schools significant?

2. Do the elements impacting instructors' performance differ by gender?

3. Do the factors influencing teachers' efficiency differ depending on the age of the principal?


Ho1: There is no statistically significant difference in the parameters impacting male and female teachers' effectiveness in public schools.

Ho2: There is no statistically significant difference between factors determining teacher effectiveness in large and small schools.

Ho3: There is no statistically significant difference in the parameters impacting teachers' efficacy based on the principal's age.

The Goal of the Research

The goal of this study is to investigate the numerous aspects impacting instructors' effectiveness, such as gender, school size, and age, and to make appropriate recommendations for improving successful teaching performance.

The Importance of Research

The findings of this study will assist educational policymakers such as the Edo State Ministry of Education, the Teaching Service Board (TSB), the Post Primary Education Board (PPEB) of Edo State, school administrators, teachers, parents, philanthropic organizations, and students.

This is due to the fact that the different issues that prohibit instructors from executing their tasks properly will be highlighted. Furthermore, effective recommendations will result in favorable results in terms of our schools' production in terms of the quality of pupils generated. As a result, educational standards will increase. This will result in an equal society, economic progress, and national development, which is the goal of the National Education Policy.

Study Limitations

The scope of this study is limited to a survey conducted in the eighteen (18) Local Government Areas of Edo State government-owned public secondary schools.

Definition of Terms

Factors: These are things that contribute to the production of results, which can be favorable or negative.

Effectiveness: The ability to deliver desired results with the least amount of energy, time, money, or materials expended.

Educational Programs: All teaching-learning activities that take place within or outside of the school's supervision.

Motivation is the process of making education engaging and fascinating to teachers by stimulating their active interest.

In-service Training: Ongoing or continual training while still in service.

Teacher-Student Ratio: This refers to the number of students in a class in relation to the number of teachers.

Teaching Experience: Is the information, skill, or experience obtained as a result of teaching through time.

Professional Qualification: The special education and training that a person must have or earn in order to work in a specific professional environment.

The general structure and surroundings in which teaching and learning activities work within or outside of the educational system or institutions are referred to as the school environment.

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