PSYCHOLOGY OF GENIUS IN ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER
PSYCHOLOGY OF GENIUS IN ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER
In the evolutionary system, advancement in the human world was driven by the desire to meet man's immediate wants and more.
Every organism is fundamentally provided with a means of subsistence. So nature has done an excellent job of providing animals with their own means of assault, sustenance, defence, and survival.
Previously, when the organism develops into a higher animal, a greater method of survival is necessary. Human reason and intelligence are manifestations of this greater demand.
The reason, then, gradually develops in man as a crucial instrument for discovering and creating new ways of satisfying himself in order to conquer his own environment – the human world.
One may not be able to stop questioning the worth of the human intellect and what it is all about. Human intellect, on the other hand, bestows to its subject the faculty of reason – ratio or intelligence.
As a result, the man, homo sapiens, as that thinking or knowledgeable being, differs from other evolutionary classifications of humans, such as homo erectus.
[standing man], homo habilis, and so on. It also plays a crucial function in the makeup of every human being.
 Reason, according to Prof Copleston, “has primarily a biological function.” Nature wants it, if I may say so, as an instrument for serving the needs of a more complex and developed organism than that of animals.”1
One would not dispute the insatiability of human needs and desires to a greater extent. And one might as well doubt Arthur Schopenhauer's idea that man and his world are essentially Will, blind desire, and representation. Every satisfaction presupposes a desire, and the latter, in a logical dialectics, strives to attend to the former.
As a result, as man wiggles in his unending and insatiable cravings, he immerses himself in them and, according to Schopenhauer, becomes the Will.
As a result, human mind may be regarded as a liberator, a key to human freedom and independence. Though intelligence is by nature the servant of the Will, Schopenhauer  claimed that it is capable of evolving to the point where it can acquire objectivity in man.
That is to say, “while man's mind is, in the first instance, an instrument for satisfying His bodily needs, it can develop a kind of surplus energy that, at least temporarily, frees it from the service of desire” .
What would happen if man was freed, at least momentarily, from the service of desire, if I may ask? Schopenhauer responds, “he becomes a disinterested spectator: he can adopt a contemplative attitude, as in aesthetic contemplation and philosophy” According to Schopenhauer, this artistic contemplation is the path of a genius.
1.1 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ARTHUR SCHOPENEAUER
On February 22, 1788, Arthur Schopenhauer was born in Danzig. His father, a wealthy businessman, anticipated that his son would follow in his footsteps and enabled him to spend the years 1803-4 travelling England, France, and other places on the condition that he would take up job in a business house at the end of the tour.
The young Schopenhauer kept his word, but he had no desire for a commercial career, and after his father died in 1803, he won his mother's permission to continue his studies.
In 1809, he enrolled at the University of Gottingen to study medicine, but in his second year, he switched to philosophy. “Life is a problem,” he says, “and he had decided to spend his time reflecting on it.”3 German idealism took a fresh turn in Schopenhauer's philosophy.
While Hegel associates the ultimate reality, the absolute, with Reason, Schopenhauer associates it with the WILL. The absolute is Reason for Hegel, whereas the absolute is Will for Schopenhauer. The absolute, according to Schopenhauer's idealism, is not an intellectual creature progressing purposefully towards its objective, but rather a blind illogical drive for life, the will-to-live.
His idealism is more directly drawn from Kant than those of the three previous idealists, because the absolute in his idealism is precisely the thing-in-itself (the noumenon) of Kant.4
People were ready to listen to a philosophy that emphasised the evil in the world and the futility of existence and preached a turning away from life to aesthetic contemplation and asceticism after the collapse of the revolution of 1818, a revolution for which Schopenhauer had no sympathy at all.
Schopenhauer rose to prominence in the last decade of his life. Visitors gathered from all directions to see him. Although German academicians had not forgotten his sarcasm and insults, lectures on his system were given at various universities, indicating that he had finally arrived. He passed away in September of 1860. May his spirit find peace. That's OK.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The question and concept of brilliance stand out among the various challenges unravelled in the enigma of the mind. To make problems worse, the current definition of “genius” is ambiguous. Previously, genius was thought to be a “heavenly gift” or a spectacular personality forced on some people.
Geniuses are frequently seen as extraordinary beings or superhumans. This ideology would prompt a philosopher or critical thinker to wonder why such a gift was given.
(if it is) to one, and intellectual dullness, if not idiocy, to the other.
The issue is truly philosophical in nature, since it calls into question the one and universal essence of humanity, of which every human being is composed.
As I am perplexed by the above difficulty, I summon the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the intellectual stage to hear what he has to say. We must recognise that Schopenhauer's outlook on life is bleak and dismal. Life is an endless struggle for the unachievable for him.
The world is replete with turmoil, conflict, pain, and evil. None of these can be stopped because they are manifestations of the Will. This idea elevates Schopenhauer to the status of the most prominent pessimist philosopher. He does, however, offer only two methods for reducing life's anguish and suffering.
These are “aesthetic contemplation and asceticism, particularly as practised in Buddhism.”5
Schopenhauer went on to say that thoughts that are the direct and appropriate objectivity of the thing-in-itself, of the Will, are Arts – genius' labour. As a result, the nature of genius may be understood only through pure contemplation in which these everlasting thoughts are comprehended.
The obvious issue is, does a genius consist solely in the contemplation and understanding of unchangeable facts, as we see in Schopenhauer? And, if so, is that skill of reflection and comprehension given to everyone? However, this is only the problem stated.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Among the many difficulties and mysteries of the cosmos that have yet to be solved in the Mystery of Mind is the question of brilliance. “Beethoven was a genius,” you'll hear people say all the time. Albert Einstein was a brilliant scientist.” “Geothe was brilliant.”
An obvious remark is that the glory of genius, if it exists, is only recognised and bestowed upon great brains – the Mahatmas of previous generations. Those folks are so well regarded that it appears that no genius exists in any current generation. Isn't it a superficial judgement or observation to judge genius only after his or her death?
When viewed through the lens of history, the concept of genius and the cognition of the same appear hazy and ambiguous. This is true insofar as people continue to doubt the concept.
Even Werner Reyneke, in his recent paper, has highlighted some concerns about the phenomenon: “What exactly is genius?” Where does it originate? Where will it go? Is brilliance only the genius's imagination and the unthinkable perplexity in the empty hearts of his expectators?” 6
In our research on the psychology of genius, we frequently encounter questions like:
What exactly is brilliance, and who exactly is a genius? Is genius a natural or supernatural gift given to some people but not others? What advantages does brilliance have for its subject and society as a whole? Is it possible to be born a genius? Or is it acquired or evolved during the course of one's life and existence?
Is genius something that everyone has, or is it something that only a few people have? Furthermore, what distinguishes a genius? Is it made up of so many quotients of knowledge and intelligence? In truth, how do we identify a genius? Do we recognise a genius based on his or her personality and behaviour?
If yes, what characteristics does a genius have? Finally, is a genius defined solely by conventional recognition and customary measurement? These and other crucial concerns will be investigated and explored in our research.
Furthermore, this research aims to define and expose the nature and notion of genius and creativity. It is also intended to enlighten the brightest as well as those who feel themselves less intellectually fortunate. In a nutshell, it will emphasise that training and perseverance may work wonders in one's life, just like brilliance.
Again, it goes without saying that people seem to have a high regard for exceptional minds – geniuses. They will go to great lengths to imitate them.
But, all else being equal or unequal, they lack the means or knowledge to achieve such a goal. Another ultimate goal of our research is to help ambitious seekers who want to ascend above the clouds, shine like a dazzling morning star, and soar like an eagle.
1.5 significance OF THE STUDY
The gift of genius, whether natural or nurtured, remains the flower of civilization and human evolution. Any country, race, or nation that participates in the slaughter of genius is extremely unlikely.
Thus, the acts of genius in their creative mindedness keep humanity's lament at bay.
Whether things are equal or unequal, our study of the psychology of genius should not be done only in an abstract or esoteric manner. To be practical and beneficial, the Schopeneaurian idealistic concept of genius in terms of artistic contemplation must be revisited.
It goes without saying that our research will not only contribute to our knowledge, but will also enable students and other lovers of knowledge to follow in the footsteps of great brains and geniuses.
Once again, the study would contribute significantly to self-awareness, auto-realization, and auto-actualization. Of course, we can't forget that the initiative would open the road for understanding, which is a crucial attribute in inter-human relationships.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work will not, in fact, focus entirely on Schopenhaurian idealistic concepts of genius. This study will neither claim to offer the entire psychological investigation into genius, nor will it promise to exhaust its notion, as this would prevent our further knowledge.
As a result, this work will not, in fact, close any intellectual window to greater brilliant understanding. The work, however, would be organised into five chapters, as seen in the table of contents. Finally, Schopenhauer's definition of genius would be critically reassessed.
1.7 methodology OF THE WORK
The method to be used for this work would be explanatory, critical, and moderately evaluative. This method is intended to approach the material philosophically in order to ensure proper comprehension.