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Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating Systems
The operating system (OS) manages system resources such as the CPU, memory, disc, moderns, and printer network. The system consists of software routines that enable users and application cards, among other things. in a safe, efficient, and abstract manner.

An operating system (OS) protects printer access by limiting the number of applications that can submit data to the printer at once.
An operating system optimises CPU usage by suspending programmes that wait for I/O operations to free up CPU resources for more productive tasks. An operating system (OS) provides abstractions (e.g., file locations) that separate application developers and users from hardware details.

The operating system oversees a computer’s activity as well as its connected devices. The first software you see when you turn on your computer is the one that allows you to use all other programmes.  At its most basic level, an operating system performs two functions

The primary function is to manage computer system resources, including hardware and software. These resources include the CPU, memory, and disc space.

The second benefit is that it provides a consistent interface for applications to interact with hardware without requiring detailed knowledge of it.

1.1 Introduction to the Linux Operating System.

Linux began as a free operating system for personal computers using the Intel x86 architecture. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system.


Android, based on the Linux kernel, has the largest installed base among general-purpose operating systems due to its dominance in smartphones. Linux is the top operating system for servers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers.

However, it is only used on 1.6% of desktop computers, with Linux-based Chrome OS accounting for 5% and nearly 20% of sub-$300 notebook sales. Embedded systems, such as smartphones and tablets running Android and other Linux derivatives

Tivo and similar DVR devices, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions, video game consoles, and smart watches, use Linux as their operating system.

Linux development is a prime example of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code can be used, updated, and distributed for commercial or non-commercial purposes under licences like the GNU General Public Licence.

Linux is typically packaged as a distribution for desktop and server use. Popular Linux distributions include Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, openSUSE, Arch Linux, and Gentoo

as well as commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Linux distributions typically include the kernel, utilities and libraries, as well as extensive application software for specific purposes.

Desktop distributions typically include a windowing system like X11, Mir, or a wayland implementation, as well as a desktop environment like GNOME or KDE. Some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop like LXDE or Xfce.

Server-specific distributions may not offer graphical environments, instead relying on additional software like LAMP to set up and run a solution stack. Linux is freely redistributable, allowing anybody to create distributions for their own usage.

1.1.0 Features of the Linux Operating System

Linux includes various silent features, some of which are important:
Multiuser capability in Linux allows numerous users to access the same computer resources, such as hard discs and memory. They are provided multiple terminals to operate from. A terminal often includes a monitor or VDU, keyboard, and mouse for input.

All terminals link to the main Linux server or Host Machine, which provides access to resources and peripheral devices like printers.
Linux’s client/server architecture allows for multiple users to connect to a single server. Client terminals, also known as dumb terminals, transmit data requests to the server and receive processed data or files in response.

Multitasking: Linux can manage multiple tasks at once, such as sorting a large list and typing in notepad. To effectively control CPU time, scheduling policies and context switching are implemented.

Linus’ popularity stems from its portability, however this does not necessarily imply smaller file sizes or compatibility with pen drives, CDs, and memory cards.


The term “portability” refers to the ability of the Linux operating system and its applications to function consistently across various hardware platforms. Linux kernel and application programmes can be installed on almost any device setup.

 Security: Security is a crucial aspect of any operating system, especially for sensitive data. Linux offers several security features to protect users from unauthorised access.

 Linux is a fast, free, and user-friendly operating system used for laptops and servers globally. Linux offers a variety of impressive features, including:

 Live CD/USB: Most Linux distributions offer a Live CD/USB feature that allows users to try the OS without installing it on their PC.

 Graphical user interface (X Window System): While some believe Linux is a command-line OS, there are packages available that can be installed to create a graphics-based interface similar to Windows.

 Supports most national or customised keyboards: Linux is widely used and available in numerous languages, including bespoke national keyboards.

 Application support: Linux provides a software repository for users to download and install hundreds of apps with a simple command in the Linux Terminal or shell. Linux can execute Windows applications as needed.

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