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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE SEED OIL

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE SEED OIL

ABSTRACT

Oil extracted from African star apple by a continuous extraction process using a soxhlet apparatus was subjected to physicochemical and fatty acid profile analysis. Results obtained show that the acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, free fatty acid, refractive index, melting point, smoke point, flash point, fire point, and specific gravity are 30.67mg/g, 20.67mg/g, 5.00mg/g, 48.00mg/g, 0.87%, 0.96, 1.47, 19.00OC, 1.03, 122.00OC, 156.00OC, and 180.00OC respectively.

All these values confirm that African star apple oil is suitable for human consumption as well as for industrial uses which compared favorably with the value obtained in palm oil, groundnut oil as well as cottonseed oil (Adewusi, 1997)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

INTRODUCTION

The genus Chrysophyllum is a family of trees and shrubs well marked by latex, and alternate, simple, usually exstipulate leaves; stipules when present fall easily.  The genus Chrysophyllum is derived from Greek, meaning “golden-leaf” because of the color of the hairs of some species. In a few others, however, the color of the hair is silvery white. The genus Chrysophyllum, Linn. is represented in most parts of Africa by thirteen species, eight of which (including Chrysophyllum albidum) occur in Nigeria.

However, while Keay et al., (1964) and Keay (1989) reported only seven species for Nigeria, Hutchinson and Dalziel (1963) reported eight species including C. Prunifolium.  All the Nigerian species of Chrysophyllum are tall or medium-sized trees except C. welwitschia which is a woody climbing shrub. On the other hand, Hawthorne (1995) reported only six species for Nigeria (Bada, 1997).

The mature tree of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don has been variously described by several authors ( Aubreville, 1963; Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1963; Keay et al., 1964, Keay, 1989;  Okafor, 1981)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Statement of Problem

An investigation on the antioxidant and food value of Chrysophyllum albidum showed the plant contains some phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin and also a high antioxidant value [9]. Generally, the roots, barks, and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum are widely used as an application to sprains, bruises, and wounds in southern Nigeria [10]. The seeds and roots extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum are used to arrest bleeding from fresh wounds and to inhibit microbial growth of known wound contaminants and also enhance the wound healing process [11].

The oil of Chrysophyllum albidum has been extracted from the corresponding seeds in a soxhlet extractor with hexane (boiling point range: 55C-65C) and analyzed for moisture content, pH, specific gravity, saponification value, refractive index, peroxide value, acid number, free fatty acid, and iodine value by [12]… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Research Objectives

  1. To obtain the methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts of leaf of African star apple.
  2. To determine qualitatively and quantitatively secondary metabolites present in the methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts of leaf of African star apples… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

The genus Chrysophyllum is an evergreen tropical tree.  Chrysophyllum albidum is a tall straight tree from 30 m to 60 m under favorable site conditions.  The bole is sometimes long and straight but often branched, deeply fluted occasionally with small buttresses (about 30 cm high) at the base.  The crown is usually dense (Katende et al., 1995; Irvine, 1961; Bada, 1997).

The Tree of Chrysophyllum Albidum

The genus Chrysophyllum is an evergreen tropical tree.  Chrysophyllum albidum is a tall straight tree from 30 m to 60 m under favorable site conditions.  The bole is sometimes long and straight but often branched, deeply fluted occasionally with small buttresses (about 30 cm high) at the base.

The crown is usually dense (Katende et al., 1995; Irvine, 1961; Bada, 1997).  The bark is thin, pale grey-brown, or pale brownish-green, while the pale brown slash exudes copious white gummy latex, a characteristic of the Sapotaceae family.  It has a network of zigzag fissures; twigs grooved (Irvine 1961; Katende et al., 1995; Bada, 1997).  It is a timber species.

The wood is a brownish-white, soft, coarse and open grain; very perishable in contact with the ground. It is easy to saw and plane, nails well, and takes a fine polish. (Katende et al.,1995;  Opeke, 1982).  The branches and the leaves (crown) form a dense canopy, so it can serve as a shade tree or used as a material for windbreaks or shelterbelts (Katende et al., 1995)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Nutritive Value of Chrysophyllum  Albidum Fruit

The fruit is very rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C). It has the highest content of ascorbic acid with 1000 — 3330 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of edible fruit or about 100 times that of oranges and 10 times in guava or cashew. It is also an excellent source of vitamins B and D as well as iron (Okafor and Fernandes, 1987; Bada,1997; Umelo, 1997).

Besides, the fruit contains 90% anacardic acid. The seeds inside the fruit contain oil in the endosperm (Bada, 1997). It has been reported that fruit pulp contains 21.8mg/100g ascorbic acid, while the skin contains 75mg/100g. Again, proximate analysis of the fruit pulp revealed protein content of (8.8%), lipid (15.1%), ash (3.4%), carbohydrate (68.7%) and crude fiber (4.0%), with only minor differences between pulp and skin.

With the exception of calcium (100 v 250 mg/100g) and iron (10 v 200 mg/100g) in pulp and skin respectively, the mineral content of these components of the fruit was also very similar. The levels of toxic substances in both the mesocarp and the pericarp were low, although the juice was highly acidic… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Relationship with the Environment

Chrysophyllum albidum is primarily a forest tree species. Its natural occurrence has, however, been reported in diverse ecozones from the high rainfall (>2000 mm) area of Urhonighe Forest Reserve, through Ilaro Forest Reserve (<1500 mm) in Nigeria to parts of the Niger Republic with less than 1000 mm annual rainfall (Bada, 1997).

Macoboy, (1989) has claimed that the species requires a hot climate and all-year-round water supplies. Field observations, however, show that factors other than those of the climate may be crucial to the occurrence and distribution of the species (Bada, 1997). PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

For instance, the species is yet to be encountered in the forest of Cross River and Akwa-Ibom States, which enjoy very high rainfall (often >2500 mm) and abundant sunshine being nearer the Equator than the dry lowland rainforests. The fact that the species is reported in Niger Republic shows that edaphic and some other factors may play a significant role in its natural distribution (Bada, 1997)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

RESEARCH MATERIAL AND METHOD

Fruit Collection and Seeds Preparation: Fresh ripped fruits of African Star Apple were bought from some local market sellers at the University of Cape Coast Science market which is located in the Southern part of Nigeria. This is a seasonal fruit that is available during the dry seasons. The seeds were first air-dried in the sun at an average temperature of 29C for 7 days and then mechanically… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Oil Extraction and Concentration Procedure: The dried seeds were milled using a laboratory rotary mill (IKA M20 Universal Mill). An amount of the milled seed was used for the Soxhlet extraction [26]. A round bottom flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane (99%) was fitted with a reflux condenser to the top. This was placed in a heating mantle at 65C and the liquid condensate dripped into the thimble which contained the milled sample… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Infrared (FTIR) Analysis Coupled with Fourier Transform: The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to determine the functional groups has been reported by various researchers [28, 29]. It was performed to determine the various functional groups of the chemical components usingtheFourierTransformSpectroscopyModelI-R Prestige 21 Shimadzu… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Oil Characterization: Physical and chemical parameters of the African Star Apple seed oil (Chrysophyllum albidum) are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Physical and Chemical Properties of the Extracted Chrysophyllum albidum seed Oil.

Property Reported Values
Oil contenta 11.6%
Refractive indexa 1.464at
Specific gravitya 30C
Acid Value (mgKOH/g)b 0.92
Saponification Value (mgKOH/g)b 7.72
Free Fatty Acids (as oleic acid)b 200.67
Iodine Value (mg/g)b 3.16

Physical properties a Chemical properties b

The oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds (Chrysophyllum albidum) with hexane using the soxhlet apparatus was physically and chemically analyzed and gave the following results as presented in Table 1… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Specific Gravity: It has a specific gravity of 0.92 at 30C which is different from that of Adebayor, Orhevba [27] who had 0.89 at 25C, 0.8269 at 25C for [31]. The saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34].

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Figure 1: Spectral analysis of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil.

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CONCLUSION

The results of the physicochemical analysis of the oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds were compared favorably with those of other traditional seed oils such as palm kernel and groundnut. The oil yield of 11.6% was low as compared to oil from palm kernel oil (45.6%) and groundnut oil (35.76%) [41].

The physicochemical properties of the African Star Apple seed oil indicated that it is nondrying (saponification value of 200mg/KOH/g) and can be used as a feedstock for the production of soaps, lubricating oils, and lighting candles. However, it may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings, varnishes, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

References

  1. Abbiw, D.K. (1990). Useful Plants of Nigeria: West African uses of wild cultivated plants. ITP/Kew 337p
  2. Adebisi, A.A. (1997) Post-Harvest and marketing constraints of albidum in Nigeria.
  3. Proceedings of a National Workshop on the Potentials of Star Apple in Nigeria, CENTRAD, Pp 84-86.
  4. Adelaja, B. A. (1997) Observations on the Pests and Diseases of Chrysophyllum albidum in Nigeria .In: Proceedings of National Workshops on the potentials of the Star Apple in Nigeria, CENTRAD Nigeria, pp 117-120.
  5. Adewusi, H.A., (1997). The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) indigenous knowledge (I K) from Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Proceedings of a National Workshop on the Potentials of the Star Apple in Nigeria (eds) Denton O A, Ladipo D.O, Adetoro M.A. Sarumi M B, CENTRAD Nigeria pp: 25-33.
  6. Agbleze, G., Anane, J.F., Owusu, D., Ulzen-Appiah, F. (2002) In: Agroforestry in Nigeria, A Technology Information Book. Africa 2000 Network, Nigeria.
  7. Asenjo, C.F., 1946. The high ascorbic acid content of the West Indian Charry. Science, 103: 219.
  8. Aubreville, A. (1963) Flora du Gabon. Paris Museum National D’Histoire Naturelle No.3 Aubreville, A. (1964) Flora du Cameroun. Paris Museum National D’Histoire Naturelle.
  9. Bada, S.O. (1997) Preliminary information on the ecology of Chrysophyllum albidum
  10. Don, in West and Central Africa, In : Proceedings of a National Workshop on the Potentials of the Star Apple in Nigeria CENTRAD Nigeria Ibadan. (Chrysophyllum albidum)
  11. Beentje, H. (1994) Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. 722p.
  12. Bene, J.G., Beall, H.W. and Cote, A. (1977) Trees, Food and People –Land Management in the Tropics. IDRC, Ottawa.
  13. Beniest, J. (2001) Agroforestry, In Crop Production in Tropical Africa. Brussels; Goekint Graphics. 1227-1243.
  14. Boateng, S. K. and Adu -Yeboah, E (2006) Preliminary Studies on the Germination of the African Star Apple (C. albidum) seeds. Technical Report CSIR-PGRC, Bunso Nigeria. (physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties) (Chrysophyllum albidum)(Chrysophyllum albidum)(Chrysophyllum albidum)(Chrysophyllum albidum)(Chrysophyllum albidum)(Chrysophyllum albidum)
  15. Parkia biglobosa (dawadawa) Seeds. B.Sc Thesis, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, KNUST, Kumasi, Nigeria. Pp 50. (physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)
  16. Bowen, G.D., Sanginga, N. and Danso, S.K.A. (1990). Biological nitrogen fixation in agroforestry- an overview. Transactions of the 14th International Congress of Soil Science 3, 170-175. (physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)
  17. Budelman, A. (1989b). The performance of selected leaf mulches in temperature reduction and moisture conservation in the upper soil stratum. Agroforestry Systems 8. (physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)(physicochemical properties)

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

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