performance OF WEANER AND GROWER PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF SOYBEAN HULL
PERFORMANCE OF WEANER AND GROWER PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF SOYBEAN HULL
In a study, 24 weaner pigs were utilised to assess how weaner and grower pigs responded to diets containing varying amounts of toasted soybean hull (SBH).Using a completely randomised design (CRD), 24 male large white x landrace weaner pigs weighing 5.92â6.85 kg were randomly assigned to four groups of six pigs each during the growth period of experiment 1.
For 56 days, each group was assigned at random to one of the four diets (diets 1, 2, and 4) that contained 0, 10, 15, or 20% SBH. Two pigs were used in each replication of each treatment, which was carried out three times on pens with concrete floors.
The diets were designed to provide 2800kcal ME/kg and 18% crude protein and were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Twenty-four male hybrid grower pigs (big white x landrace) weighing 9.12â9.90 kg, approximately 14 weeks old, and divided into four groups of six pigs each using a completely randomised design (CRD) were used in experiment 2 (finishing phase).
For 56 days, each group was assigned at random to one of the four diets (diets 1, 2, and 4) that contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBH. Two pigs were used in each replication of each treatment, which was carried out three times on pens with concrete floors.
The diets were designed to provide 2900kcal ME/kg and 16% crude protein and were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The following variables were calculated: daily feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and feed cost per kg of weight gain.
blood samples from two pigs per treatment were taken at the conclusion of each trial for haematological analysis. The carcasses of two more pigs from each treatment were also evaluated after the finishing experiment.
According to the findings of experiment 1, pigs given the 10% SBH diet had higher average final body weights, average weight gains, and better feed conversion efficiency than those given the 20% SBH diet (P0.05).
SBH intake levels in the meals could not significantly affect the PER values (P>0.05). Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) differences between the treatments were significant (P 0.05).
In comparison to other SBH diets, the feed cost per kg weight increase was lower at the 10% SBH inclusion level. The haematology of growing pigs was unaffected by dietary interventions. Pigs fed the soybean hull-based diets did not perform worse overall than pigs fed the control diet (0% SBH).
The 20% and 30% SBH diets in experiment 2 supported greater final body weight gain and growth rate, better feed conversion ratio, higher protein efficiency ratio, average daily protein intake, and feed intake than the control diets (P 0.05).
The cost of feed per kg of weight increase was significantly (P 0.05) decreased in the diets when SBH was included, notably at the 30% SBH inclusion level.
Pigs fed the control diets shared similar values for packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) with the groups receiving SBH diets.
While dietary levels of SBH had no significant (P>0.05) impact on body length, height at withers, lung weight, liver weight, spleen weight, or pancreas weight, they did have a significant (P0.05) impact on heart girth circumference, heart weight, kidney weight, live body weight, and dressed carcass weight.
The relative weights of the heart and kidney were not significantly (P>0.05) impacted by the dietary intake of SBH, but the dressing % and relative weights of the lungs, liver, and spleen were.
It was determined that toasted soybean hull can be added to the diets of grower pigs at a level of 30% and weaner pigs at a level of 20% without having a negative impact on the animals' performance, haematological results, carcass weights, or organ weights.
The development of Nigeria's cattle industry has been hampered by the lack of traditional feeds.
When compared to the availability of calories, the problem of the food shortfall is in fact worse with the supply of protein.
A lack of protein, especially that of animal origin, is a problem across most of Africa, where it is estimated that only 10g of animal protein is taken on a daily average, compared to the 35g that is advised (ILCA, 1980; FAO, 1997).
Obioha (1992) and Ogini (2001) estimate that Nigerians consume about 8 grammes of meat and animal protein per day, which is about 20 grammes less than the minimum amount recommended by the National Research Council of the United States of America.
The output of domesticated animals like pigs and chicken, which are typical sources of animal protein, must therefore be increased.
Since pigs develop more quickly and are significantly more productive than cattle, sheep, and goats, pig farming in particular is one of the fastest ways to increase animal protein.
Only broilers outgrow pigs in terms of growth rate (Holness, 2005). Pigs and poultry are distinguished by the superior efficiency of nutritional translation into high quality animal protein, in addition to their rapid rate of reproduction (Smith, 2001; Holness, 2005).
Pig farming gives the most immediate returns on investment, excluding the poultry industry. Finding locally accessible substitutes for conventional feedstuffs that can economically replace them by lowering feeding costs was necessary due to the high cost of conventional feedstuffs, especially the protein supplement (EL-Sabben et al., 1970; Fontenot, 1971).
This increased the profitability of the pig industry. Soy bean hull is an additional affordable and accessible feedstock that will be taken into account in this investigation.
Soybean hulls, also known as soybean mill-run or soybean flakes, are by-products of the soybean milling industry that do not draw animal or human competition.
When compared to other potential sources of feed material, soybean hull is easily accessible. When added in moderate to high quantities to diets based on maize, soybean hull has an estimated feeding value of 74â80% of that of maize (Esonu, 1998).
It can replace some or all of the grains in ruminants' diets since it has a high level of possibly digestible fibre (Van Soest, 1985). According to Preston (1989; Esonu et al., 1997; Esonu, 1998), soybean hull includes 22.75% crude protein, 18.15% crude fibre, 14.60% ether extract, 8.0% ash, and 20.90% nitrogen-free extract.
However, due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and amylase inhibitors, lipoxygenase, hemagglutinin, phytic acid, and the toxin soyin, the use of soybean hull in the feeding of monogastric animals is restricted (Ensminger et al., 1996; Enwere, 1998; Holness, 2005).
Its high fibre content is another drawback in addition to antinutritional elements. Pigs lack the digestive system necessary to extensively digest large amounts of fibre, hence they cannot completely benefit from meals high in fibre.
Although there is little information on the use of soybean hull, it should be studied for use in animal feeds because it has an adequate proximate composition and is present in relative abundance throughout the year.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the growth performance, financial impact, blood parameters, and carcass features of weaner and grower pigs fed varying amounts of diets based on soybean hulls.
The following are the study's main goals:
I. To ascertain how the performance of weaner and grower pigs is affected by graded levels of soybean hull.
II. To ascertain how the haematology, carcass, and organ weights of grower pigs are affected by the graded levels of soybean hull.
III. To find the ideal proportion of soybean hull to include in the diet of weaner and grower pigs.
IV. To calculate the financial impact of providing weaner and grower pigs with graded amounts of soybean hull.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a ready market for fresh pork in several regions of Nigeria. The expense of manufacturing, however, is a significant barrier to greater pig production. The price of feed and feed components is one factor in this. In fact, feed costs account for nearly 90% of pig farm recurring expenses.
Therefore, it is necessary to create low-cost, sustainable investment management strategies for Nigerian pig farming. The effective incorporation of highly nutritious feed ingredients into the diets of the animals would be crucial to the sustainability of the pig business in Nigeria.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION AND significance OF THE STUDY
Utilising conventional feeds as economically as possible is necessary due to the high cost of protein feedstuffs like fish meal, groundnut cake, and soybean cake, as well as the intense competition between humans and animals for resources like maize and soybean, for example.
This will be accomplished by using less of these pricey feedstuffs and making up the difference with unconventional feed, like the protein-rich soybean husk.