Project Materials







Adolescence is a developmental stage in which many changes occur, including physical, mental, and social changes. Adolescence is also a time of excitement and difficulties, and it can be a confusing time. It is true that adolescents have different self-esteem and react differently to situations and circumstances. Some are very receptive, while others are aggressive and unfriendly.

Some of these adolescents have been observed to be maladjusted in their behavior and relationships with their peers and other members of society. Some of these adolescent with self-concept issues are unable to adjust or cope emotionally.

The national education policy was established in recognition of this. Career offices and counselors should be appointed in post-primary institutions in light of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in light of personality, maladjustment among school children. As part of the guidance and counselling function, assisting maladjusted students.

A child’s self-concept is heavily influenced by the training he or she receives. Individual parenting styles also influence how a child emotionally adjusts to society. There are various families. There are single parent homes, two parent homes, and multiple parent homes (also known as polygamy). Different parenting styles are employed in these homes. These parenting styles have an impact on individual adolescents’ self-concept and emotional adjustment in society.

Parenting styles influence how an individual perceives himself or herself, his or her physical, social, and psychological aspirations, and emotional adjustment in the society in which he or she lives. It is therefore critical to investigate the various parenting styles and how they influence the self-concept of the individual adolescent. It is also necessary to consider the manner in which the individual will adjust emotionally to society.


Parenting, according to Cleaner Casiellino, Michinery, and Terry Vilarcial [1995], is a term that sums up a set of behaviors that occur throughout life, in the reactions of organisms that are usually the same and typically members of different but cohorts.

Parenting interaction provides resources across generational groups and functions in terms of domains such as individual survival reproduction, nature, and socialization; however, parenting is a complex process that entails much more than a mother or father providing food and succor to an infant or child.

Parenting involves a bio-directional relationship between members of two or more generations that can extend through all major parts of these groups’ respective life spans and may engage all institutions within a culture including education, economic, political, and designed settings that the group left behind [Ford and Leaner Lager].

According to Bornstain [1995], the primary functions of a child’s family are to raise the young person in the healthiest possible manner. The parent’s role is to provide a safe, secure, nurturing, and loving environment for the child, as well as to support the child’s environment as one that allows the offspring to have a happy and healthy youth life. This type of experience enables youth to develop the knowledge, values, attitudes, and behaviors required to become adults capable of making a productive contribution to self, family, community, and society at large.

Parenting refers to what a parent does to fulfill these “duties” or roles. In other words, parenting is a term that summarizes the behavior of a person, usually a mother or father, in the process of raising a child given to the family.


Development psychologists are interested in how parents influence social and instrumental competence, according to Darling [1999]. It has also been said that parenting is the most difficult and important job a person will ever have.

According to Kathic [1999] on clear guidelines above, the way of parenting has been based on appropriate upbringing of children in the building of positive self-concept without having emotional problems.

Darling [1999] describes parenting as a difficult task involving a variety of specific behaviors that work both individually and collectively to influence adolescent life.

According to Fry [2004], many parents believe that being oppressive, a commander, an authoritarian, and autocratic is the best way to raise and rear a child, particularly an adolescent. These parents believe that the adolescent should obey all commands, while another group believes that they should be permissive or negligent as parents.

Could such parenting style lead to maladjustment? Nigerian adolescent with low self-concept and emotional problem, authoritative parenting styles have children who are more socially, emotionally, and instrumentally competent than non-authoritarian parents.

According to Baumrind [1991], adolescent from authoritarian families perform well in school but are involved in problem behavior, low self-esteem, and a high level of depression.

Various researchers, according to Schwarz [1999] and Darling [1999], have low self-esteem and low self-concept as a result of authoritarian family, the reluctant once perform poorly in school, and a low level of depression. Which of these styles is known to promote positive emotional growth? Could this also be said of the study’s participants? Can the four parenting styles be combined to eliminate adolescent maladjustment? Can two or three parenting styles be used to ensure a healthy adolescent life?

According to National Policy on Education [1998], one of the goals and objectives of the national policy on education is to train the mind and understand the world. It also claims to promote the physical and psychological development of all Nigerian children.


The goal of this study is:

1a. Indulgent parenting style

Parents who are authoritarian

c. Powerful parents and guardians

d. Uninvolved [reluctant] parents

All of this will be accomplished through research materials and field work with questionnaires.

2. How parenting styles influence adolescent self-concept

3. And how parenting style and self-concept influence adolescent emotional adjustment.


The study posed the following research questions in order to determine the effects of parenting styles and self-concept on adolescent emotional adjustment:

1. Does parenting style influence adolescent emotional adjustment?

2. Does adolescent self-concept influence emotional adjustment?

3. Does adolescent self-esteem contribute to problems with fornication, smoking, cultism, and other vices?


The scope of the research will be limited to 10 [ten] randomly selected secondary schools in the Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.


This study investigates the effects of parental styles and self-concept on adolescent emotional adjustment. As a result, this research will contribute to our understanding of parenting styles and self-concept.

This work will also be useful to those who want to conduct data analysis on parenting styles, self-concept, and adolescent emotional life. It will also assist parents, in particular, in understanding the impact they have on their children in order to help develop programs that will aid in the development of their relationship with their adolescents.

The study will also assist professionals such as psychologists and educators in understanding that child rearing is based on social support, behavior molding, and adolescent emotions. Furthermore, the process of adolescent self-development is geared toward assisting parents and counselors in understanding the various parenting styles that are positive and negative to the adolescent.


Some terms used in this study are defined below to help you understand them better:

1. PARENTING STYLE: This refers to the various methods of raising children. We have here

a. Overindulgent parents

c. Authoritarian

c. Authoritarian and

d. Parents who are uninvolved [reluctant].

2. SELF-CONCEPT: This is a term that refers to an individual’s perception of himself.

3. PARENTAL ATTITUDE: This refers to parental feeding of the adolescent.

4. INDULGENT PARENTS: These are the parents who are less concerned about the upbringing of their children.

5. AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS: These are the parents who believe in oppressing their children by providing them with directive options that are not responsive.

6. AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS: They are responsive and do not limit their children’s decision-making abilities.

PARENTS WHO ARE UNINVOLVED OR RELUCTANT: They are not responsive and are not helpful.


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