OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG EMPLOYEES
A well-structured questionnaire was used in the survey design. Respondents were chosen using a simple random sampling procedure. A total of eighty (80) responders were chosen from the Beta Glass Plc personnel.
Three hypotheses were developed and tested using Chi-Square analysis. As a consequence of the study, all null hypotheses were rejected, and the three alternate hypotheses were accepted.
Conclusions were reached based on the decisions of the tested hypotheses that there is a significant relationship between occupational hazard and the psychological wellbeing of factory workers; there is a significant relationship between occupational hazard and poor productive service of factory workers; and there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and effectiveness as well as efficiency.
It was suggested that employers and employees be encouraged in their efforts to reduce the number of occupational hazards and safety at their workplaces, and that employers and employees be encouraged to institute new and improve existing programmes ‘for providing safe and healthful working conditions.
history OF THE STUDY
Occupational safety and health (sometimes known as occupational health and safety) is a field concerned with ensuring the safety, health, and well-being of those who work or are employed. Occupational safety and health programmes aim to create a safe and healthy work environment. (Safety Documents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) OSH may also safeguard coworkers, family members, employers, customers, and a variety of other individuals who may be affected by the employment environment.
Occupational health and safety can be critical for moral, legal, and economical reasons. ‘Employers safe work practises, Health and safety policy, 2013.' All organisations have a duty of care to ensure that employees and any other person who may be affected by the company's undertaking stay safe at all times. Moral responsibility would include safeguarding employees' lives and health.
In this sense, the term “working culture” refers to a reflection of the basic value systems established by the enterprise in question. Such a culture is expressed in the undertaking's managerial processes, personnel policy, participation principles, training programmes, and quality management. Occupational Health Service and practical Guidelines Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health ILO 2013.
Although labour brings many economic and other benefits, a variety of workplace hazards pose threats to workers' health and safety. Chemicals, biological agents, physical factors, poor genetic conditions, allergies, a complex network of safety risks, and a wide range of psychological risk factors are among them. Comparative Quantification of Health Risk (WHO). Lopez, A. Rogers, and C J C Murray (ends).
In many sectors, physical risks are a common cause of injury. They may be inevitable in some areas, such as building and mining, but people have evolved safety measures and procedures to manage the hazards of physical danger in the workplace over time. Child labour may present unique challenges.
Falls are a significant source of workplace accidents and fatalities, particularly in (instruction, extraction, transportation, healthcare, and building cleaning and maintenance (prison injuries prevention in the workplace” NIOSH. Work and Health institute of occupational safety and health. July, 2012.)
According to Bazroy et al. (2003), catastrophic occupational injuries kill 10,000 people worldwide. Occupational injuries are one of the primary causes of adult death and a major contributor to permanent disability in low-income countries such as South Asia and Africa, with an estimated 50 million work-related injuries occurring each year, or 160,000 every day.
According to Gardner et al. (1999) and Druchi et al. (W04), the manufacturing industry has a higher prevalence of workplace injuries than other industries. Fadier and De la Garza (2006) estimated 62,500 occupational accidents in France in 2000 alone, while Mattila et al. cW06) reported 20,016 hospitalisations for injuries in Finland between 1990, I, and 1999.
According to the Nigerian Institute of Safety Professionals (2000), 11,000 individuals are wounded each year in Nigeria's chemical industry due to on-the-job accidents. Adebiyi et al. (2005) calculated the annual cost of agro-allied industry accidents in south-western Nigeria at 87.89 million dollars.
Occupational hazards are risks to human health and safety that are unique to Nigeria. Furthermore, Adebiyi et al. (2005) calculated the yearly cost of accidents in agro-allied sectors in south-western Nigeria at 87.89 million dollars. Despite efforts to eliminate hazards, many hazards exist in the workplace due to the nature of the profession. Recognising occupational hazards is the first step in developing risk-reduction programmes for the workplace.
Workplace safety and health should be prioritised. Some jobs are exceedingly dangerous by definition. Jobs with various occupational risks frequently pay their employees more in acknowledgment of the danger, and they are also normally charged higher insurance rates since underwriters recognise that the risk of paying out on that insurance is significantly higher. Occupational dangers can cause disease, injury, or even death.
They can include physical dangers such as falls and exposure to heavy machinery, as well as psychological risks such as stress. Workplace dangers such as exposure to chemical, biological, and radioactive agents are also a worry. People who work in jobs with a recognised occupational safety hazard often receive additional training to make them aware of the threat.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Employers in our country have a highly unfavourable attitude towards employees since they are frequently considered as slaves in Nigeria. Their profession requires them to deal with a variety of health issues. As they work all day, manufacturing workers or employees confront a variety of physical problems such as cardiac diseases, high blood pressure, hypertension, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, fatigue, obesity, varicose veins, dehydration, sunstrokes, and ageing.
They also suffer from sunstroke, joint pains, skull skeletal diseases (MSD), and the release of waste chemicals or gases as a result of extended hours of labour and little physical activity, among other issues. Given such a long list of health issues, strict precautions should be made to avoid them.
Possible solutions include sitting in a proper posture, taking medication for strong resistance power, and so on, so that they, too, can have good work circumstances at ida and a healthy and happy life after all, they sacrifice their family life and health for our country.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the occupational hazards that factory workers face?
2. How do occupational dangers affect the psychological well-being of factory workers?
3. How efficient and effective are industrial workers in the factory when there is a hazard in the workplace?
4. What are the varied reactions or responses to occupational hazards in terms of job satisfaction, dedication, and compliance?
5. What are the numerous factors that influence job satisfaction notwithstanding the hazards encountered in the factory?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study's aims are as follows:
1. Investigate the many occupational dangers that affect factory workers.
2. To investigate the impact of occupational hazards on manufacturing workers' psychological well-being (job satisfaction, commitment, and compliance).
3. Determine the effect of job happiness on the productivity of industrial workers.
4. To assess different responses or reactions to occupational hazards in terms of job satisfaction, commitment, and compliance.
5. Make credible proposals for practical strategies to reduce occupational dangers among factory workers.
1.4 IMPORTANCE THE STUDY
Factory or manufacturing labour demands both physical and mental power, as well as extreme caution to avoid getting into a dangerous scenario. This research is required to uncover the hazards related with manufacturing as well as factory jobs based on glass production, as well as to emphasise the job satisfaction.
This research is necessary in light of the current hazardous scenario in which factory workers' wrists, legs, and hands cut through the heavy powered engine used in the manufacturing of glass or when a huge load falls on a worker while he is performing his tasks. I've heard of such a circumstance when such an incidence occurred.
The reality remains that the worker was not properly cared for. And that those who have been permanently handicapped are even disregarded to the point that their families must sometimes fight the corporation in court before essential steps are taken to correct the victim's predicament.
A country with rigorous laws and good working conditions should require the adoption of standardised health and safety policies that will ensure the safety of workers in varied organisations.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The purpose of this research is to identify occupational dangers and job satisfaction among olfactory workers. The research focuses on the factors that contribute to occupational health and safety concerns in glass production plants/industries.
The study will focus on factory workers. The study will highlight the numerous types of occupational health and hazards, as well as their consequences on workers' lives, as well as how they can be controlled to improve workplace efficiency and effectiveness, which is guaranteed by job satisfaction. However, the study's shortcomings include population, time, and budgetary constraints.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms have been operationalized in the study:
1.6.1 Occupational Hazard: A danger or hazard to workers that is inherent in a specific work environment.
Occupation. A hazard or risk inherent in some jobs or workplaces, or any condition of a job that might lead to illness or injury
1.6.2 Occupational Safety: To promote a safe and healthy work environment that also protects coworkers, family members, employers, customers, and other individuals who may be affected by the workplace environment. Workers and their representatives must collaborate with employers to advance occupational safety and health within the firm, for example, by participating in the development and implementation of preventive programmes.
1.6.3 Factory Workers: These are persons who work in industries to provide labour services that ensure the organization's needs or objectives are met.
1.6.4 Efficiency: the state or quality of being proficient in performance or the capacity to complete a task with the least amount of time and effort. Describes how well time, effort, or money is spent on the intended goal or objective. It is frequently used to convey the ability of a certain application of effort to create a specific effort. The terms “efficient” and “effective” are frequently misconstrued and misused.
In general, efficiency is a quantifiable quantity established by the output to input ratio. Efficiency can be stated as a percentage of what could ideally be expected, with 100% being the ideal scenario.
1.6.5 Commitment: The act of vowing or promising something, or the state of being committed to something. To be obligated or pledged to a specific cause is to make a commitment. In a relationship, this is the commitment to the other partner to have an exclusive companionship that connects the people together.