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Nigeria has had significant changes in her political system throughout the years, beginning with the fight and struggle for political independence in the late 1940s; nationalists were still in the pre-independence and post-independence periods at the time.

For example, during the pre- and post-independence years, political parties in Nigeria were not ideologically based; rather, they were regionally based and weaved around specific politicians who most of them considered as mentors.

However, in the final ten years, parties were registered based on the demands of the time; this scenario continued until 1998, when the necessity for parties that could usher Nigeria into a new period of democracy after fifteen years of military dictatorship became apparent.

According to history, political parties in Nigeria have grown and played an important role in achieving democratic aims.

From 1991 to 1993, there was a clear evolution of numerous political groups during the last fifteen years. In Nigeria, there are two main types of party systems, with the government founding the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the National Republican Convention (NRC).

Following the annulment of the presidential election in 1993, the military government proscribed the parties; however, Nigeria returned to democratic rule in 1999; the restoration of the democratic government in 1999 led to another method of parting politics in Nigeria;

during this period, the liberalisation for the registration of political parties evolved, opening up the political space for mass participation in political activities in Nigeria.

The proliferation of registered political parties in Nigeria, ranging from 50 to 100, despite the fact that some of them have been extremely unlucky in terms of winning elections;

the few political parties that have dominated the political space to the point where fears of the country devolving into a one-party state have been expressed. Both at the federal and state levels, opposition parties are beginning to defect to the ruling party.

Nigeria, like many other African countries, has faced democratic issues, but it has also made progress throughout the years. Across the country, there have been requests for certain changes and improvements in the way political parties are administered and controlled in the coming years.

Many have claimed that Nigeria must implement procedures that protect its inhabitants’ rights to elect leaders of their choosing, as provided for in the country’s constitution.

As Nigeria consolidates its democratic framework and mechanisms, the multi-party system in Nigeria must demonstrate a new degree of dedication to the people’s yearnings and ambitions for more fundamental and lasting development.

The recent 2011 general election in Nigeria had some setbacks, and it drew international attention to our political system. It also prompts them to raise certain concerns about our democratic system.


Political parties are the main tool of political development in every existing multi-party system, and regardless of their various ideological bends, different political orientations, and victory potentials,

they are still allowed to participate in political competition for control of government machinery and people uniting. Political parties are considered as agents of harmony, peace, and integration in every modern society, however despite this notion, the multi-party system still has several concerns that diverge from the above.


The study’s main goal is to investigate Nigeria’s multiparty system and democratic processes in the fourth republic. Other specific study objectives include:

To investigate the relationship between Nigeria’s multi-party system and democratic processes in the fourth republic.

To understand the political implications of Nigeria’s multi-party system under the fourth republic.

To determine if the presence of a multi-party system guarantees democratic consolidation in Nigeria’s fourth republic.

To make recommendations for improving Nigeria’s democratic process through a multi-party system.


Is there a link between Nigeria’s multi-party system and democratic processes?

What are the political ramifications of Nigeria’s multi-party system?

Does Nigeria’s multi-party system ensure democratic consolidation?

What are the strategies for enhancing Nigeria’s democratic processes?


H0: In Nigeria, there is no relationship between the multi-party system and democratic processes.

H1: In Nigeria, there is no relationship between the multi-party system and democratic processes.

H0: The multi-party system has little impact on democracy in Nigeria’s fourth republic.

H1: The multi-party system has a substantial impact on democracy in Nigeria’s fourth republic.


The study would be extremely valuable in the following ways:

For starters, it would assist decision-making organs and institutions in Nigeria in determining the grounds for political party creation in order to promote national integration and political progress.

Second, it will significantly contribute to academic knowledge about the role of political parties in political development.

Furthermore, it will raise knowledge and instill a feeling of responsibility in political party members about their role in achieving good governance and political growth.


The aim of this study is solely focused on examining the level of development produced by the multi-party system in Nigeria’s political realm. It also focuses on the party system, the history of Nigerian political parties, and political party connections.

The work is severely limited because there is no available financial support to aid in the collection of sufficient material for this study, and the short time frame for the investigation also made it impossible to collect as much information as feasible for the study.


Politics is endemic in a man’s social existence, which is why Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, argued that man is a political animal. Prof Okwudiba Nnoli defined politics as the emergence of state power, the consolidation of a state power, and the use of a state power.

A political party is an organised collection of persons who strive to capture control of the government in order to reap the benefits of such authority. Furthermore, a political party is a regular and permanent organisation comprising a specific number of people interested with gaining or retaining power.

A political party, on the other hand, is any group, no matter how loosely organised, that seeks to elect governmental office holders under a specified banner. In other words, a political party can be defined as a group of persons or groups who aspire to take government power in order to implement their ideals.

A party system is made up of all the parties in a given country, as well as the rules and norms that control their behaviour. It simply refers to the development, structure, and organisation of political parties.

Election: An election is a process of voting and being voted for by qualified citizens of any country; qualifying may be educational or, in some situations, based on experience.

An election is the process by which members of an organisation or community elect representatives to positions of power within it.

Political development can be defined as the process of a country’s political transformation. It is an event that causes a situation to alter or progress, a state in which something is still evolving.

Multi-party system: A multi-party system is simply the presence of three or more parties in a given state. A country with three or more viable parties is said to have a multi-party system of government.

However, a country may have three or more parties but still not be considered a multi-party system country since viable strong opposition parties must exist in order for a coalition government to form.

Democracy is derived from the Greek words “demos,” which means “the people,” and “kratein,” which means “to rule.” As a result, it is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. It is also a form of governance in which citizens have full rights and obligations to participate in governmental policies and decision making.

Power is the power to make people (or objects) do things they would not have done otherwise. In other terms, power is the ability to force someone or anything to do what you want, or the ability to act and secure conforming behaviour.

Electoral Commission: This is the body in charge of conducting elections in the country; in Nigeria, for example, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is an example of an electoral body.

Voting: The open or secret statement of one preference for a person, a party, or a cause–a secret ballot is thus viewed as a necessary prerequisite for the expression of free choice.

Tyranny: This is tyrannical government. A tyranny acts like a dictator, but not always in the best interests of the people. Tyranny is a sort of despotism that is harmful.

A general election is a form of election in which all of the electorate in a country votes on the same day to elect members to the government.

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