Project Materials






The goal of this study was to evaluate motivation as a predictor of teacher performance in private secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos.

To investigate motivation factors that influence teacher performance, a descriptive research design incorporating quantitative and qualitative approaches was used. A survey was conducted with 148 respondents from private secondary schools in ikeja, Lagos, including ordinary teachers, department teachers, and head teachers. In addition, extensive interviews with principals were conducted.

The descriptive statistics of the SPSS package were used to analyze the data. The study found that job security and a lack of job alternatives motivated people to enter the teaching profession, but salary was a secondary consideration. The study also revealed that the majority of teachers were motivated by intrinsic factors, while a small percentage were motivated by extrinsic factors, despite low pay.

Furthermore, while not all extrinsic motivation factors were available to teachers (such as free meals, regular salary payment, leave of absence, free housing, and weekly allowances), the majority of teachers were more concerned about the inadequacy of current salary levels to meet their basic needs.

The study recommends that secondary school teachers’ salaries be increased immediately to match increases in the cost of living, that teachers be provided with housing, and that supervision be strengthened.





1.0 The Study’s Background

According to Cory (2016), early assumptions assumed that work was an inherently undesirable pursuit and that workers naturally sought to do as little as possible, which translated into a sort of carrot-and-stick managerial policy.

Motivation directs people’s actions and behaviors toward the achievement of any goals (Analoui, 2012). Motivation is frequently described as intrinsic or extrinsic in work and other contexts (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2012). Intrinsic motivation, which stems from within the individual or from the activity itself, has a positive impact on behavior, performance, and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2012).

Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is the achievement of externally administered rewards and influences such as pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations, among others. In contrast to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is defined as behavior performed for its own sake rather than to obtain material or social reinforcement.

Recent research tends to support the view that motivation comes from within and that each individual has his or her own set of motivating forces (Adam 2017, p. 7).. Nonetheless, both sources of motivation are important, and it is the responsibility of administrators and institutional governing bodies to carefully identify and address these motivation forces in order to achieve both individual and organizational goals.

Teacher motivation is related to the teacher’s attitude toward work, desire to participate in the pedagogical process with the school/college environment, and interest in student discipline and control in the classroom (Aacha 2010; Bennell 2017). Furthermore, teachers have intrinsic as well as extrinsic needs.

That is, an intrinsically motivated teacher pursues tasks for the satisfaction of accomplishment and self-actualization. An intrinsically motivated teacher, on the other hand, may perform activity duty in order to obtain a reward such as a salary.

Teachers’ behavior is influenced by both factors (Din, 2008). As a result, the organization’s goal should be to build on and enhance intrinsic motivation for teachers in order for them to perform their teaching tasks effectively, while also providing some extrinsic motivation along the way for college/school improvement.

Despite the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational variables on teacher performance, little is known about the influence of these factors on teacher performance in African countries such as Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to determine how much intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence teacher performance in secondary schools.

1.1 Problem Description

There is a widespread belief that motivation is a predictor of job performance. Nelson and Quick (2013), in particular, argue that a job with high motivation and hygiene factors leads to high performance and few complaints among teachers in public and private secondary schools. Work motivation requires an essential stimulus, and needs are the driving factors in developing work motivation while working in an organization such as schools (Hoy & Miskel, 2016 ;). Thus, a person’s goal of working is similar to a

A teacher who is actively working to earn a living and meet his or her own needs, with hopes, desires, and dreams that can be realized at work.

Several factors influence teachers’ work performance in the Nigerian context, and studies by Mulyasa (2016), Rajani (2013), and Swai et al (2017) have shown that work motivation does influence teachers’ work performance. An extensive survey study conducted by Bennell and Mukyanuzi (2015) of 120,000 teachers working in 13,000 government-funded primary schools across Nigeria discovered a teachers’ motivation crisis.

First, while job satisfaction and motivation levels among Nigerian primary school teachers are not as low as frequently suggested, they are still far below what is required to ensure that teachers provide quality basic education to all children by 2015.

Second, given the likely future developments, the study predicted that motivation levels would fall quite rapidly over the next five to ten years if no concrete intervention strategies were implemented in both primary and secondary schools. One of the reasons for the poor performance of secondary schools in Nigeria in 2011 and 2012 is a lack of adequate motivation among teachers, particularly due to low pay and poor working conditions.

There are also media reports of deteriorating professional conduct standards, including serious misbehavior (on and off the job), and poor professional performance in some secondary schools, and there is a call to investigate the effect of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in the context of today’s dynamic environment (Bennell and Mukyanuzi 2015; Swai et al 2017 ).

As a result, this study examines the impact of motivational factors on teacher performance in the Nigerian education sector, with a focus on private secondary schools in Lagos’ ikeja neighborhood.

1.2 Goals of Research

1.2.1 Overarching Goal

The overarching goal of this study was to investigate the effects of motivational factors on teacher performance.

1.2.2 Particular Goals

The following specific objectives guided the specific objective

To identify motivational techniques/tools used by school principals and the Ministry of Education to motivate teachers in Lagos state.
To ascertain teachers’ perspectives on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors/tools
To assess the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors used by school leaders and the Ministry of Education on overall teacher performance.

1.3 Research Issues


What are the current motivational tools used to motivate teachers in private secondary schools, particularly in ikeja, Lagos state?
What are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing teacher motivation in private secondary schools?
What is the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and student performance in private secondary schools in Lagos state’s ikeja?

1.4 The Study’s Limitations and Scope

The study looked at how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence teacher motivation in private secondary schools in Lagos. The study focuses solely on government secondary schools in Lagos state, as well as the role of secondary school principals in motivating teachers. The study singled out teachers and principals who are frequently chastised by the public and who are crucial to secondary school performance.


1.5 Importance of the Research


This study looks at teachers’ motivation and how it affects their performance in private secondary schools in Lagos state.

For starters, schools are a major source of employment for graduates from various institutions. The findings of this study could be used to inform the education curriculum, such as the inclusion of management courses such as motivation, in order to provide relevant and effective school performance and productivity in both public and private schools.

Second, teachers play an important role in secondary education (Olulube (2008), and it is argued that the presence of motivational factors in the workplace influences employee job performance and productivity.

It is expected that the study will reveal the effects of motivation used by secondary school principals, the Ministry of Education, and how teachers perceive motivational tools.


1.6 Key Terms Definitions

1.6.1 School Principal

A head of school is someone who runs the school with the help of other teaching and non-teaching staff. As a result, the head of school is regarded as the school’s chief executive, who is accountable for everything that occurs in the school (Oyedeji and Fasasi, 2016).

1.6.2 Motivating Employees

Is defined as “the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, as determined by the effort’s ability to meet some individual need.” Ramlall (2017)

1.6.3 Intrinsic Motive


This is an inducement that comes from within the person or the activity itself and has a positive impact on behavior, performance, and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2012). In contrast to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is defined as behavior performed for its own sake rather than to obtain material or social reinforcement.

The intrinsic motivation of teachers in this study included job satisfaction derived from teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging and competitive nature of teaching, recognition, career development, control over others, and teaching as one’s life goal.

1.6.4 Motivation


Is concerned whenever an activity is performed (prompted to perform) in order to achieve a result that is distinct from the activity itself (Ryan & Deci 2012, p. 60). Extrinsic motivation arises from obtaining externally administered rewards such as pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from others (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2012).

Extrinsic motivation of teachers in this study included externally administering rewards such as salary, free housing, free meals, weekly duty allowances, extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, and free medical care, among other things.


1.7 Structure of the Dissertation

The dissertation was divided into five sections: The first chapter of the study provides background information, a statement of the research problem, objectives of the study and research questions, justification and significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study, and conclusion.

research and conceptual framework The second chapter is a review of the existing literature on employee motivation and performance, which includes a theoretical and empirical review. The third chapter describes the research methodology used in this study. The fourth chapter presents and discusses the research findings. Finally, Chapter 5 presents the study’s summary, conclusions, and recommendations.



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