MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE USE IN NIGERIA
MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE USE IN NIGERIA
Reduced population growth is thought to boost a country's possibilities for economic development, which is thought to improve the country's ability to improve the lives of its citizens. In the case of Nigeria, we can see the rapid growth of population, which has increased threefold, for example, from fifty-six (56) million people in 1963 to one hundred and sixty-seven (167) million in 2006.
According to the National Population Commission (2011), there is no more grave and pressing socioeconomic issue than population growth. To preserve the country from a more serious catastrophe, population growth must be carefully controlled and monitored, and people must prioritise their health.
The objectives of this study are as follows: to analyse the level of knowledge and practise of family planning, particularly modern contraceptives, by people in Nigeria, with a special emphasis on the Hausa community of Katsina-Ala L.G.A. in Benue state,
which is one of the most populated communities in Katsina-Ala L.G.A., to examine the characteristics of contraceptives users, and to identify those factors that create barriers to the practise of family planning, particularly modern The data was collected through primary and secondary data;
the research instrument used was a questionnaire, personal observation, and oral interview; and the data analysis consisted of simple tabulation on the background of showing frequencies and percentages.
The study reveals that current methods of family planning are still widely used in the study area. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were given based on the findings in order to improve and facilitate modern family planning practise in our current culture.
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
High fertility rates, and thus high population growth rates, are among Nigeria's greatest economic and social challenges.
This is because contemporary contraception use in Nigeria remains quite low, although increasing over the recent decades from 3.5% to 8.6% (1990 and 1999 Demographic Health Survey; Nigeria National Population and Health Survey 2008:pp4).
It is also stated that the level of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescent is extremely low, which contributes to the high rate of teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, among other things.
Overall, total demand for family planning (FP) remains very low, with only 29% of women requesting FP in 1999, according to the National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS 2003).
However, between 1990 and 1999, the level of unmet family planning requirements fell from 21% to 13.3% (federal ministry of Health (Nigeria) 2003; reproductive Health Survey, 2003, by federal Ministry of Health Abuja, Nigeria).
There is great concern about the high morbidity and mortality associated with biological reproduction, such as material mortality and abortion-related complications and death,
because Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, with figures ranging from 704 (FOS/UNICEF, 2000) to 1500 (UNFPA, 2002) maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (FGN 1986, 1990, UNICEF 1994, Ladipo 1989, Ante 1986,)
Modern contraceptive use has been and continues to be a major concern on the international health agenda. Over the last two decades,
policymakers, implementers, and scholars around the world have expressed a growing desire to improve modern contraceptive use, particularly in developing countries (World Health Organisation, 1999; United Nations, 1996; Family Care International, 1994; MDGs 2000).
The establishment of primary health care as a cornerstone of health policy, as well as the importance placed on efforts to improve health services (including family planning) at the community level and the efforts of National and International Organisations in recent decades, have increased awareness and participation in family planning services.
The announcement of National Population Policy on 14th April 1989 is proof of government end or section of population scheduled (Funmi Adesokan, 2014. Pp 482-483).
Since then, Nigeria has made significant efforts to improve its people's health and lives by building more health facilities and training more health personnel for health care service delivery.
However, available statistics show that Nigeria's reproductive health situation remains poor, with outstanding challenges in the areas of family planning, maternal mortality, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and gender based violence (NDHS).
Pathfinder Internal Centre for Development and Population Activities (PICDPA), Population Services International/Society for Health (PSI/SFH), Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN), and others have made major contributions to reproductive health in Nigeria.
However, the majority of these efforts have come from various donor private sectors. Examples of such donor organisations include:
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA): They help with reproductive health and family planning.
World Health Organisation (WHO): Polio Surveillance
Health System Development Project (HSDP): Help with capacity building and civil works, as well as equipment and remuneration.
Plan Parenthood Federation (PPF): Family Planning Assistance.
The United States agency for International Development (USAID) will help with reproductive health and family planning.
The Mac-Authur Foundation is the primary donor. (Funmi Adesokan 2014:482–483; Reproductive Health Nigeria, the Enhance Project, June 2005).
While donor organisations and the Nigerian government have contributed significantly to family planning, much more is needed to give it the priority attention it deserves at all levels of government.
The act of family planning was initiated in America in 1912 by a nurse named Margaret Sanger. In recent decades, health workers have come to recognise that, in addition to clean or safe water,
a healthy environment, and a balanced diet, family planning is an important component of a good health scheme and as a unit in a health service that has been neglected to some extent by both individuals and their various communities.
This has functioned as a risk factor for high-risk pregnancy, contributing to the high maternal and infant death rate (FGN 1986, 1990, UNICEF 1994, Ladipo 1989, Anate 1986).
High fertility is connected with high levels of material mortality, both because additional pregnancies increase the likelihood of pregnancy-related deaths and because the dangers of pregnancy and childbirth grow after the third child.
Despite this, many communities in Nigeria continue to put tremendous pressure on women to have a large number of children (family care international, 1991).
The World Health Organisation (WHO, 1997) defines family planning as “a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily by individuals and couples on the basis of knowledge, attitude, and responsible decision in order to promote health and welfare of the family, group, and thus effectively contribute to the social development of the country” (National Training Manual on Family Planning (NTMFP), 2004: pp 31).
Family Planning was further described as the action taken by individuals and couples to plan the number, training, and spacing of children they wish to have in order to promote the health and welfare of the family (G.O. Sofoluwa, 1986).
Despite its wealth of human and natural resources, Nigeria is currently ranked among the 13 poorest countries in the world, with roughly 66% of Nigerians living below the poverty line.
This high level of poverty, particularly among the rural population, further restricts access to adequate health care and other basic services (Reproduction Health Nigeria, June 2005).
Furthermore, despite Nigerian women's high fertility rate of 5.7 births per woman, which varies by zone, we are mostly concerned with the high material and child mortality rate as indicated by the Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (NDH) 2003,
which shows that one woman dies every 10 minutes and approximately 54,000 women die each year due to complications related to pregnancy and child birth (Reproductive Health survey, 2003; Reproductive Health Nigeria, the
According to principle 3 of the National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development and Self-Reliance, everyone has the right to the best attainable standard of physical and mental health, including family planning (National Training Manual on Family Planning (NTMFP), 2014:pp. 22).
There are various sorts of family planning methods, including modern, traditional, and natural methods. This study will concentrate on the usage of contemporary contraceptives in Nigeria, with a special emphasis on the Hausa people who live in Katsina-Ala LGA in Benue state.
This is because a variety of circumstances, including educational, religious, economic, and traditional views, have contributed to the non-use of modern contraception.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nigeria has one of the world's fastest rising populations (2.9% each year). Nigeria had a population of 56 million people in 1963, and over the years it has more than doubled, which is concerning for the country's political, economic, and social development.
According to the National Population Commission (2011), Nigeria currently has a population of 167 million people. With a current fertility rate of 5.7 children per woman, Nigeria's population would more than double in twenty one years (21 years), reaching 225 million people.
One of the primary drivers of high fertility in Nigeria is a low use of modern contraception (NDHS 2008:7; Population studies on population and quality of life, 2004:7).
The percentage of couples and women of childbearing age who use modern contraception is typically significantly lower, as it is in the research area's Hausa community Katsina-Ala LGA in Benue state.
One cause for the disparity in modern contraceptive use is that individuals are unfamiliar with the various types of modern contraceptive techniques of family planning.
The lack of utilisation of modern methods also has to do with how they interpreted it and what their actual way of life is.
It is related to their views or principles. The majority of people in the Hausa population of Kastina – Ala Local Government Area are unaware of modern contraceptives such as hormonal, barrier techniques, and so on.
Few people who use current family planning methods are concerned about rumours regarding side effects and difficulties, which may be attributed to a lack of basic information about modern contraceptives.
Worryingly, men in the study area are not usually participating in family planning practises or services because they believe it is solely for women; hence, intended reaction and results on the topic raise the level of challenge in this regard.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
How does a lack of awareness about modern contraceptive methods effect their use in the field of study?
What effect do service providers and facilities have on family planning programme implementation?
What is the relationship between insufficient chosen family planning commodities and poor utilisation rates in the study area?
How do traditional and religious beliefs about modern contraceptive use influence its use in the field of study?
What steps has the government done to increase the use of modern contraceptives?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The overall goal of this research is to look into the use of contemporary contraception in Nigeria. The study specifically wants to;
Examine the effects of contemporary contraception on the Hausa people in Benue State's Katsina Ala Local Government Area.
To investigate the reasons that impede the usage of contemporary contraceptives.
Examine the government's role in promoting the use of modern contraceptives in the Hausa community of Katsina Ala LGA in Benue State.
Identify and discuss ways for increasing the usage of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.
To make recommendations on potential strategies to improve the usage of modern contraceptives.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Many authors, writers, and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have recently contributed significantly to the issue / subject matter under discussion, but it appears that their efforts are generating no results in Nigeria due to the worrisome increase in birth rate.
To improve planning, the situation must be revisited or revised to determine why the available modern contraceptives are not having a passive influence on the majority of women in Nigeria.
The researcher, a qualified social worker, has made it her mission to rescue, advocate, sensitise, and reduce the occurrence of child birth through the use of contemporary contraceptives and family planning,
as well as educate women on how to access quality family planning services (preventive and curative).
The goal of this study is to investigate and examine the use of contemporary contraceptives in Nigeria, with a focus on the Hausa people in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area in Benue state.
If carefully researched, there may be reasons that militate against the usage of contemporary contraceptives in the study area.
This study is critical because the findings will help government policymakers make decisions about couples' reproductive health rights. This study's findings will expose and enlighten couples on the use and significance of various current contraceptive forms.
Furthermore, it will pave or open the way for other researchers who desire to do research on this topic and contribute to the knowledge and increasing literature in this field of study.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the Hausa community in the Township ward of Benue State's Katsina Ala Local Government Area. It discusses the use of modern concepts in Nigeria, specifically in the Hausa community in Katsina Ala Local Government Area of Benue State.
The study thus investigates the influence of contemporary contraceptives on people, with a focus on the Hausa community, and the elements that create an unfavourable environment for the use of modern contraceptives will be discovered, as will ideas for improving utilisation.
1.7 THE STUDY SETTINGS (Hausa Community in Benue State's Katsina-Ala LGA)
Geographical Location: Katsina Ala Township is the headquarters of Benue State's Katsina Ala Local Government Area. The Hausa community, which is the focus of the research, is located in Katsina Ala Township.
Location: The Hausa settlement situated in the western portion of Katsina Ala Township ward in Benue State.
Boundaries: The Hausa community is limited on the western side by the River Katsina Ala, on the northern side by the Ikurav – Tiev I community, on the southern side by the Etulo community, and on the western side by the Abaver community. All of these boundaries are contained under the Katsina Ala Township District.
Population: According to the National Population Project 2003, the Hausa community in Katsina Ala Local Government Area has a population of 5,375 people.
Health Care: Within the Hausa community, there is one local government comprehensive health centre. There is no private health centre in the neighbourhood.
Social Amenities: The community has very substandard housing, few primary educational institutions, bad roadways, and portable water.
Religious belief: The majority of the Hausa people in Katsina Ala Township are Muslims, with only a few Christians and Pagans.
Occupation: The majority of the population is unemployed, with only a few minor traders and farmers.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Specific words are linked with each academic discipline. Many terminologies have distinct meanings when used literally than when they are used professionally.
As a result, it has become necessary to define the following terms in order to have a comprehensive grasp of the material in which they are employed.
Family planning is the use of contraception to space or limit the number of children.
Modern Family Planning is the use of artificial contraception to space or limit the number of children.
Traditional Family Planning: It is a family planning practise based on the usage of native herbs specific to each culture.
Fertilisation is the process by which an ovum is impregnated by spermatozoa.
The ova is a female reproductive cell.
The adult male reproductive cell, spermatozoa.
Sterilisation: The inability to reproduce.
Vasectomy: Surgical incision of a portion of the male vas deferens, usually for sterilisation.
Tuberculosis: Female sterilisation through tying off the fallopian tubes.