MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE HOTEL AND CULINARY industry
The study's theme is Human Resource Management in the Hotel and Catering Industry (A case study of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu). The researcher incorporated both primary and secondary data into the study. Using surveys and direct observation, the basic data was acquired. The secondary data was obtained from textbooks, periodicals, and libraries.
The survey research design was utilized for this study. The sample consisted of 82 employees of the organization. The sample size for the study was calculated using the Yaro Yamani formula, which yielded 63 employees. A total of 63 questionnaires were distributed and returned, yielding a return rate of one hundred percent. The researcher analyzed the data using sample percentage and chi-square as statistical tools.
The survey indicated that the majority of employees at this company are unaware of the mechanism for determining pay, indicating that management does not involve employees in the machinery or mechanics of payment calculation. The function of the worker is reduced to strict adherence to rules and regulations.
The researcher suggested, among other things, that hotel industry employers adopt a comprehensive personnel policy study.
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have traveled and need shelter on their journeys. As a result, accommodations in the shape of inns, modest hotels, and subsequently larger hospitality suites sprang up to accommodate these demands. Thus, it is believed that hospitality is the second-oldest profession in the world.
Immediately following the civil war in 1970, there was a virtual absence of hotels and, in particular, well-known international hotel brands in Nigeria. Nigeria's hotel business did not begin to expand until the late 1970s, during the oil boom period. In recent years, however, Nigeria's hosting of several major international events, such as the common wealth heads of government meeting (CHOGM), the All African games, and carnivals, as well as the visits of two American presidents and other presidents with their entourages, has resulted in the construction of several more hotels in Nigeria, particularly in the major cities.
This expansion is not unique to Nigeria; for instance, the American food service business in 1979 had busing for meals away from home of 110 billion dollars and was the third largest industry in terms of total retail sales, employing approximately 6 million people and having an average of 125. In 1995, there were 42 employees, but the company currently need many more people each year.
Since then, Nigeria has witnessed numerous significant advancements and changes that have contributed to the relative improvement of the standard of living for the vast majority of working people. Numerous variables, including increased national productivity, stronger economic growth, more enlightened management, and trade union pressure, have contributed to these changes.
The hotel and catering business has made substantial contributions to this general improvement in the level of living by providing basic and leisure services, employment, and wealth development.
In any country, hotel development is a meticulous process needing extensive planning prior to, during, and after construction. There is still evidence in many parts of Nigeria that this pre-planning has not been successfully executed, resulting in some hotels that are unable to fulfill the ever-changing and growing consumer needs of today and tomorrow, including the fact that demand far exceeds supply in key cities like Lagos. Tourism, of which the hotel and catering industry is a major component, is reportedly a promising growth area in Nigeria.
Despite the technical advancements, the working conditions of a significant portion of the industry's employees have not kept pace with those enjoyed by workers in other sectors.
alterations to the catering sector itself. Numerous factors contribute to the slow rate of progress in the industry's employment conditions, including the understandable reluctance of many proprietors and managers to modify labor pay in accordance with industry advancements. In addition, the majority of the industry's workers is not prepared to make a career out of the job, which could be a reason why unions have minimal sway in the majority of the industry's sectors.
In most cases, the working circumstances of industry employees are undesirable. There are inherent, inescapable disadvantages, such as needing to work long evenings and weekends. Other difficulties, however, can be eliminated or diminished via concerted managerial action. Staff reliance on tips, employees' ignorance of techniques for calculating compensation and the distribution of service charges, and management's reluctance to include staff in concerns affecting their working lives are examples of such issues. Therefore, management should find a means to bring out the best in these groups of underutilized employees.
In Nigeria, there are numerous companies that provide food services and can be classified as hotels by their nature. It is anticipated that there will be approximately 550 hotels, inns, and commercial guesthouses in Nigeria by 2008, each employing between 10 and 250 individuals based on their size. It is estimated that between 418 and 900 individuals were employed worldwide in 2003.
1.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM
In an industry in Africa that appears to have grown steadily over the years, limited competence is consequently expected, and this poses a concern.
The purpose of the study is to examine these and other issues and provide recommendations where warranted. The problem of a lack of experienced workers in this industry in the third world appears to be caused by managers' reluctance to train and employ capable workers.
Another issue is that the majority of workers in the business lack clear means to register their criticisms and complaints, as management typically stifles unionization efforts.
The third question is whether or not the basic wages and perks of workers are proportionate with their work ethic and efforts. As employers become less responsive to changes in the economy with regard to adjustments of pay and benefit packages in line with economic growth, as is the case in the majority of developing countries today, including Nigeria, they are left with employees whose dedication to work decreases; whose morale and motivation to work plummet drastically.
Additionally, we are confronted with an atmosphere in which employees are typically kept in the dark about facts they have the right to know. Example, payment
Method of decision, criteria for promotion, etc., are determined by the whims of management. This constitutes a problem.
The final issue is the widespread notion among most individuals that positions in the industry are a “last choice” for those who cannot find “better” employment. This inhibits young individuals from pursuing a career in the hotel and catering industry.
Having identified a number of difficulties, this study seeks potential remedies for a number of them.
1.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
To this end, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the reasonableness of all entitlements owed to or payable to the portion of the labor force that is wholly or partially employed in the hotel and catering industry. These are the objectives of this investigation.
Examine the reasonableness of various benefits and rights that are not included in the basic payment.
Determine the extent to which compensation is proportional to the efforts of employees in this industry.
To assess the degree to which compensation and benefits in this industry are comparable to those in comparable industries.
The purpose of this report is to assess the influence of the hotel's industrial relations on worker welfare.
Determine the effect of improper payment and employee benefit schemes, or their absence, on employee performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
These research inquiries will be posed:
How happy and motivated are workers in the hotel and catering industry by their compensation?
To what extent are the working conditions in this industry commensurate with the effort of workers?
How involved is management in the training and development of its employees?
How does management feel about the development of unions?
How responsive is management to changes in the economy, as measured by the adjustment of compensation and benefit packages in accordance with economic indicators?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis of this study involves the following:
Employee compensation and benefits are not commensurate with their efforts.
Employee compensation and benefits are commensurate with their work.
Management does not encourage employee unionization.
The management favors employee unionization.
The payment and benefits received by employees have a negative effect on worker morale and motivation.
The payment and benefits received by workers have no negative affect on their morale and drive to work.
1.6 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The study is notable because of the following:
To dispel the notion, held by some hotel management in the country, that employee unionization may cause them further difficulties.
To emphasize the importance of pay being proportional to efforts and output, given that the majority of workers in this business are motivated by psychological demands, but work in conditions presumably reserved for self-actualized members of society.
Ability to assist in restoring the industry's status as a major economic component and a prospective growth sector.
1.7 RADIUS AND RESTRICTIONS OF THE STUDY
An attempt to evaluate the human resource management in the hotel and catering business would be too extensive and comprehensive. Accordingly, the researcher believes that the scope of this study should be limited to the administration of employee benefits and welfare schemes, i.e., all other entitlements due to employees other than payment that, by their very nature, may serve as motivation for the staff of the organizations in the industry.
This research is limited to the complete workforce of the Royal Palace Hotel in Enugu. However, this study's conclusions will apply to the Nigerian hotel and catering industry. Major limitations of this study include the limited work done by prior researchers on this topic, as well as the management's antagonism towards questions and inquiries.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A hotel is a business that offers food and beverages, and if necessary, sleeping accommodations, to anyone who is in a fit state to receive the services.
False hotel – A hotel that primarily serves travelers while they are temporarily away from home.
These are hotels that provide full apartment-style living facilities as opposed to simple guest standards that lack cooking and eating facilities within individual units.
Airport hotel- This aims to cater for travelers that use the airport.
A salaried employee is typically paid monthly through a bank and consists primarily of managers and senior supervisors.
Full-time employees typically work between 30 and 45 hours per week and have a monthly salary that is guaranteed in cash.
Resort hotel – Hotel located along a beach, lake, or other natural geographical feature that can be incorporated into the hotel.
Casuals – Employees who typically work on a session basis, such as evening or afternoon shifts, with no assurances of future employment and who are typically paid by the session in cash.
MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE HOTEL AND CULINARY INDUSTRY