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The research study aimed to analyse leadership roles and motivation at Nigerian universities, particularly the University of Benin, as well as to closely monitor the relationship between the subject heading and staff productivity in these institutions. To this end, a research statement of challenges is presented below.

The issue of leadership roles and motivation in Nigerian universities has been highlighted as the primary reason for these institutions failing to meet the exact expectations of Nigerians in terms of goal achievement.

The effectiveness and efficiency of Nigerian universities’ performance would be heavily influenced by, among other things, leadership roles and employee motivation.

Assuming if the leaders of these institutions demonstrate the best leadership positions, together with the incentive of human resources to increase productivity in these institutions, the scenario would have been very different.

The serious problem of inefficiency in Nigerian universities necessitates a research study of this kind to decrease, if not completely eliminate, the problem.

Throughout the research programme, the survey method was used to develop and administer questions to participants. The results were tallied and occasionally depicted in figures. The revelation was that more is required to attain success in employee satisfaction and productivity in Nigerian universities, particularly the University of Benin in Benin City.

Finally, one would recommend that the leaders in these universities perform their roles effectively in order to meet the expectations of all University service users, and that they increase the amount of motivation provided to the institutions’ human factors in order to motivate these workers to be more productive.

To assure the study’s success, the researcher opted to offer it in five chapters.

Chapter one


1.1 Background of the Study

According to Prince Joh Okojie’s book (Organisational Behaviour and Management) (2001, p. 168), leadership is essential for corporate effectiveness. According to the preceding phrase, leadership may be translated as a very important but beneficial aspect or variable in any organisation.

In the same vein, Keith Davis (1981), in his book (Human Behaviour at Work), described leadership as “the ability to persuade others to pursue defined objectives enthusiastically.” The human factor is what binds a group together and pushes it to achieve its goals.”

Leadership, according to Management Study Guide (2012), is “a process by which an executive can direct, guide, and influence the behaviour and work of others towards the accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation”. Leadership is a manager’s capacity to inspire their subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (6th edition) best defines leadership as “the ability to influence the behaviour of others.” It also described leadership as “the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of a goal.” Leaders are responsible for creating future visions and motivating organisational members to work towards them.

In general, it is evident that leadership and leadership roles are crucial in all human organisations, given what several books have said regarding the notion of leadership.

Good leadership has moved numerous nations around the world out of colonial domination and into freedom. Looking at the matter from a different perspective, inadequate leadership has caused numerous governments around the world to collapse. A good example is Hitler’s leadership role during World Wars I and II, which lasted from 1918 to 1945.

All University of Benin employees may agree that Professor Adamu Baiki’s time as Vice Chancellor was successful. The Vice Chancellors who succeeded him failed to meet the expectations of the majority of University of Benin employees.

Today, whether in the public or private sectors of the economy, effective leadership is required for radical but constructive transformation. Institutions of higher learning, such as the University of Benin, require individuals with exceptional leadership qualities to lead the university to glory in areas of goal achievement.

In addition to other leadership traits, any leader should be able to motivate their followers or subordinates to increase productivity. This benefits universities in particular, as well as the country as a whole. A leader who is unable to motivate his employees has no place in modern development.

The preceding facts are consistent with Professor R.O.F. Ola’s notion of motivation in his script titled (motivating others to increased production) delivered at a Senior Supervisory Development Workshop (1993).

Motivation was defined as “the will to work and contribute action to a given process without being forced to do so” in his definition. Professor Ola also defined productivity as “the ratio of input to output”.

According to the following comment, the University of Benin has long struggled with bad leadership. The overall worry here is that the workers blame the University of Benin’s administration or leadership for their low productivity, whilst management blames the workers for the institution’s productivity decline.

Historical Background of the University of Benin

The University of Benin was founded in the early 1970s under the military administrative supervision of Brigadier Samuel Osaigbovo Ogbemudia, then-governor of Nigeria’s midwestern region.

The Vice Chancellor of the University of Benin, as with other Nigerian universities, is the institution’s executive head, while the Registrar is the administrative head. The University of Benin is a line-and-staff organisation. In the end, all staff, including the Registrar, are accountable to the Vice Chancellor.





Administration and Services

Academic Affairs




Deans of Faculties and Schools

Heads of academic departments

Deputy Registrar

The Deputy Bursar

Deputy Librarian

Director’s Physical Plan

The Director of Works


Assistant Registrars & Others

Principal Officers

Organisational Chart of the University of Benin

An organisation chart is a diagrammatic description of an establishment’s structure that depicts the status of the organization’s boss and his position.

A chart also depicts the flow of authority in an organisation, both between supervisors and subordinates, as well as among all employees. Above all, an organisational chart depicts and demonstrates the formal relationship between the organization’s several official levels.

The above University of Benin organisation chart depicts and highlights the flow of formal authority between the establishment’s superiors and subordinates. It is an expression of the University of Benin’s structural design, and the institution’s performance objectives can now be simply addressed in accordance with the structural design.

As a result, one might deduce that the institution’s organisational structure is a multi-structural design composed of numerous structural sub-systems that work together to fulfil the organization’s overall aim.

According to Keith Davis (1981) in his book (Human Behaviour at Work), “a system suggests that there are a myriad of variables in organisations, each of which impacts all the others in a complex way.

An occurrence that appears to effect only one department may have far-reaching consequences throughout the organisation. This means that managers must consider the implications of their actions on a bigger system rather than just the present circumstance.

The system approach should provide an accurate description of the University of Benin’s performance objectives.

The University of Benin, like many other universities around the world, was founded to provide three key services as its purpose. The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines a university as “an institution at the highest level of education where you can study for a degree or conduct research.”

The University provides teaching services to students and awards degrees to qualified students upon satisfactory completion of their studies.

The University took the character development of its students seriously before awarding degree certificates to successful students in order to promote societal growth.

The University of Benin is divided into several faculties, each with its own set of departments. Some of the faculties are listed below:

Faculty of Social Science

Faculty of Sciences

Faculty of Education

Faculty of Engineering

Faculty of Agriculture

Faculty of Arts

Faculty of Law, etc.

Each faculty has a Dean who serves as the executive leader of that faculty. Aside from the Faculty organisation, the University has a College of Medicine with numerous departments, such as the Dentistry Department.

The numerous faculties and departments stated above are dominated by academic personnel, i.e. lecturers, who are always assisted by non-academic staff such as secretaries and other subordinate staff such as cleaners, messengers, and so on.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The University of Benin is currently experiencing a severe difficulty in terms of providing a favourable environment for employees to perform flawlessly well with all of their hearts and minds.

The labourers do not receive regular pay. They are not promoted when due. Some employees have not been promoted in seven to eight years, leaving them at the same grade level.

Another issue confronting the college is the extent to which some students participate in bad cult rituals. The engagement persists because the leaders have not issued an effective policy statement on the subject, which would have decreased, if not abolished, such behaviours.

Cultism on campus had claimed the lives of many of the University of Benin’s students as a result of battles between secret cult groups on campus. A example in point is the brutal murder of a medical student at the Uniben campus in Ugbowo.

It is clear that the level of academic excellence is rapidly declining at the University of Benin in particular, and at other Nigerian universities in general, as a result of student engagement in test malpractices.

This heinous practice has sometimes been proven beyond reasonable doubt, with a few selfish teachers assisting and abetting these pupils in their criminal act of examination misconduct.

If any organisation is to flourish in terms of productivity and employee performance, all hands must be on deck to address the issues described above and nip them in the bud. Only by doing this will the organization’s mission be achieved.

These issues will be investigated and resolved. Recommendations will be submitted to the appropriate authority. As far as I am aware, many universities in Nigeria, including the University of Benin, are suffering significant challenges.

For example, the workers in these universities are not treated fairly by the authority, particularly the leadership responsibilities played by various leaders in the institutions, putting the workers on the receiving end.

If any organisation wants to prosper in terms of maximum worker productivity, the issue of leadership quality must not be disregarded, because leadership challenges are widespread throughout organisations. Creating the possibility of poor productivity levels among the workforce, all hands must be on deck to address such issues fiercely.

Putting all other aspects of a leader aside, the question of how successfully a leader can motivate the workforce is a major issue in Nigerian universities, particularly the University of Benin.

Workers’ performance will suffer significantly if they are underpaid in terms of salary and pay, forced to labour in terrible working conditions, and given insufficient working supplies. Understandably, the most severe impediment to performance is a low income.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to look into leadership styles and how they affect workers. Productivity or performance in relation to the functions that leaders play at the University of Benin, in particular, and at all Nigerian universities.

The study will also look into the impact of motivation on worker effectiveness.

Another important goal of this research is to investigate the extent of students’ involvement in the evil practice of cultism on campus. Students’ involvement in examination malpractice is also a major goal of this study, as is the investigation of leadership involvement in the aforementioned problems.

The research will focus on identifying the issues that are impeding the institution’s ability to provide high-quality leadership. Efforts will be made to identify potential solutions for improving the leadership role at the University of Benin.

The study’s goal is to determine the effectiveness of specialised managerial assistance in policymaking.

It is vital to note that if the research study’s objectives are completely realised, the University of Benin, as well as other Nigerian universities, will gain immensely.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will aid the management of the University of Benin in particular, and other Nigerian universities in general, in achieving high productivity through effective leadership and motivation.

Furthermore, leaders will learn from this research that excellent leadership roles and employee motivation are critical components of survival in modern organisations such as the University of Benin.

It is worth noting that many books written by eminent scholars were consulted, and facts were revealed about the best leadership style appropriate for the University of Benin situation,

as well as how best the University’s workers could be motivated for maximum yield in productivity. This is food for contemplation for all university leaders.


In a study of this sort, hypotheses are unavoidable. The effect of effective leadership roles and motivation on employees is increased productivity.

Employee incentives can lead to increased productivity.

Workers will be more productive under democratic government.

When communication is clear, effective, and mutually beneficial, productivity is guaranteed.


This study is limited to the University of Benin’s Ekehwan and Ugbowo campuses. Questionnaires will be distributed at random to both senior and junior staff members of the Universities of Benin on both campuses.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The researcher faced numerous obstacles while conducting his investigation. Finance was one of the primary issues, as the researcher was unable to obtain appropriate qualitative evaluations on leadership roles and motivation in Nigerian universities.

Another constraint that the researchers faced was that many employees, particularly those with lower levels of education, may be unaware of the value of any research.

This category of workers will be extremely tough to obtain questionnaires from. In rare cases, they may be unable to appropriately complete out questionnaires.


Reaching all of Nigeria’s universities will be extremely challenging, if not impossible. Thus, the University of Benin would be used as a case study.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Leadership: As used in this research, leadership refers to the ability to influence the behaviour of others. It can also be defined as the ability to persuade a group towards achieving a goal. Leaders are necessary to create future visions and persuade organisational members to aspire to attain them.

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines a leader as “a person who leads a group of people, particularly the leader of a country or organisation.”

According to the dictionary definition, a leader’s role is the function or position that he or she holds or is expected to have in an organisation, society, or relationship.

As a result, in this context, a leadership role may be described as the role or position that a leader holds within an organisation, society, or relationship.

Leadership styles refer to the way and technique used to provide instructions, carry out objectives, and motivate people. It can also be defined as the behaviour pattern that a leader displays when attempting to influence the actions of others as seen by those others.

Motivation: The concept of motivation simply refers to the process of encouraging people to take action in order to achieve their goals. One of the most important functions of management is to motivate employees to achieve to the best of their abilities. As a result, a leader’s task is to pique employees’ interest in how they perform at work. Motivation consists of three stages:

A genuine need or motivation

A stimulation that has to be aroused.

When needs are met, goals are accomplished.

Productivity measures the efficiency of production. It is also defined as the ratio of output to inputs. Productivity is defined as the amount of output produced per unit of total input.

Performance is the fulfilment of a particular work as measured against predetermined established standards of correctness, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is defined as the fulfilment of an obligation in such a way that the performer is released from all contractual liabilities.

Incentives refer to anything that inspires or has the potential to inspire resolve or action. It also refers to what motivates and urges someone to undertake something.

A university is a higher education and research organisation that awards academic degrees in a range of fields and offers both undergraduate and graduate programmes. The term “university” is derived from the Latin Universitas magistrorun at scholarium, which roughly translates as “community of teachers and scholars”.

Employer: A person or organisation that recruits employees or workers. Employers pay wages or salaries to employees in exchange for their labour.

An employee is someone who is hired to offer regular services to a corporation in exchange for money. An employee gives work and knowledge to an employer’s endeavour and is typically employed to complete particular activities outlined in a job description.

In most modern economies, the term “employee” refers to a distinct relationship between an individual and a firm, as opposed to those of a customer or client.

Work is something that one does, creates, or performs, particularly as a profession or undertaking. It is also a physical or mental effort or action oriented towards the creation or completion of anything.

Production refers to the procedures and methods used to transform tangible (raw materials, semi-finished goods, or subassemblies) and intangible inputs into goods and services.

Organisation: Organisation serves as the foundation for the entire management structure. Organisation is concerned with creating a framework in which the entire task is separated into manageable components in order to ease the attainment of objectives or aims.

Organisation is the framework or system that allows living things to cooperate. In a static meaning, an organisation is a structure or machinery staffed by a collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose. The term “organisation” refers to four distinct concepts: a process, a relational structure, a collection of people, and a system.

According to management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the essential goal of management is twofold: marketing and innovation.

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