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We are concerned with business resources, the organisation of physical and financial resources cannot take place until manpower is organised, and the effectiveness of the organisational scheme depends on how manpower is utilised.

Because everything in power is a sense, we organise people rather than physical and financial resources. That notion of manpower, planning must be applied to all resources or risk having their resources underutilised.

Indeed, individual firms or organisations cannot function without manpower; our understanding of elementary economics informs us that labour (i.e. power) is the human effort, mental or physical, exerted in the production of goods and services; it is one of the most important factors of production; others are land, capital, and entrepreneur (equally an aspect of manpower).

The achievement of goals of organisations, whether commercial or public, is heavily reliant on the ability, calibre, competence, and experience of their workforce. The argument here is that an organization’s success or failure is inextricably linked to the manpower it recruits, retains, and develops over the course of its operational existence.

Interesting, of all management tasks, managing the human component in an organisation is the central and most important task, because all management is dependent on how it is done.

This reveals the obvious fact that all activities carried out, performed, or engaged in by an organisation as well as the nation are initiated, determined, planned, implemented, and evaluated by manpower.

The realisation of the importance of manpower to national development and the achievement of established organisational goals necessitated its planning and supervision.


Manpower planning was defined in 1980 as a procedure aimed at ensuring the efficient utilisation of personnel. He went on to say that manpower planning is concerned with ensuring that the proper amount of workers are in the right location at the right time, with the appropriate variety of ability and competence.

Another set of researchers, Torrighton et al, defined manpower planning by stating that the emphasis (of personnel planning) is on ensuring that the organisation has the correct amount of people with the right talent in the right place at the right time.
Manpower planning operations can be seen at three levels in every organisation. These are the policy, planning, and operational levels.

Other decisions and activities include recommending a method for generating storms and retrieving manpower information (i.e. manpower information system), formulating and developing a framework for internal transfers, promotions, discipline, and termination of employee and appointments, and sourcing and allocating the required financial resources.

Level of planning: This level includes operations such as building the organization’s recruitment system. Setting the standard criteria for candidate selection; putting in place administrative procedures for providing central information; and building processes for dealing with issues such as internal transfers, promotions, discipline, and termination of appointments.

Operating level: This level is in charge of putting policy decisions into action using the systems structure and settings defined at the planning level. It entails interviewing both job applicants and current employees, administering and conducting skill and aptitude tests,

designing and placing advertisements for available job vacancies, establishing relationships with external sources of manpower supply, and compiling human resources planning dates.

Meanwhile, a variety of factors, such as:

Planning period: To some extent, time span impacts personnel planning; the longer the period covered, the greater the likelihood of deviation between prediction and actual condition, and vice versa

. Remembering that the goal of most manpower plans is to minimise the unpredictability of demand and supply of human resources, which is affected by changes occurring within the general and specific environment of the organisation.

Unpredictability of human assets: Human assets change like the weather, posing a major obstacle to the preliminary investigation. Measurement or study (Krelter, 1999, p. 48) Because humans cannot be reduced to laboratory tests and are a crucial success factor, planning goals and objectives must be updated and reviewed on a regular basis.

Uncertainty in the General Business Environment: The realities of change, which occur regularly in both the external and internal environments of business organisations, expose the general nature of planning, which is uncertainty (Kreithner, Ibid, p. 162).

That is, personnel planning is a never-ending process of goal and expectation reviews, changes, and readjustment. Thus, flexibility in planning becomes critical in order to achieve set organisational goals.

Unification of manpower planning approaches

Another obvious limitation of manpower planning is the inability to reach agreement on a single line of approach/practice in organisations. Such an approach should systematically focus on identifying future manpower needs and problems that may be caused by the fast changing business environment.

The requirement for workforce planning

It is critical to remember that organisations must plan for how to deal with the difficulties of advancements in production technology, information technology, and computerization because they alter how and by whom occupations are performed in organisations.

The emphasis on personnel planning is based on the concept that all departments in an organisation must be accounted for in terms of manpower requirements.

Because of the impact of information and technology breakthroughs, as well as computer jet age syndrome, it is also becoming increasingly difficult to train workers for all job types.

Every organisation is interested in adequate coordination of all units and departments, hence good manpower planning must be implemented. And because the cost of labour in an organisation has risen in the last year, organisations must plan ahead of time to achieve the best results.

It is also critical to emphasise the importance of manpower planning in the organisation.

Manpower planning provides information necessary for conducting a successful training programme, allowing for the purposeful retraining and development of existing manpower. Such training programmes should not only be related to current job requirements, but also to future job requirements in terms of bother organisational development and individual skill development.

The incorporation of manpower planning into the overall business or organisational planning process will generate information that can reveal the true cost of future development. For example, if a company is planning to introduce a new service facility or, better yet, enhanced staffing allowances and incentives, the true cost could be easily arrived at using manpower planning tools.

Overestimation of cost will reflect an unrealistically expensive venture, discouraging. The inference is that if the facility or product is introduced, it will be operating at a loss or from a disadvantageous position. Finally, efficient workforce planning can help to alleviate the challenges associated with recruitment.

It should be recalled that recruitment is a costly and time-consuming operation, and that delays in recruitment have the potential to undermine staff morale. As a result, manpower planning at this stage is required to highlight not just turnover patterns but also likely factors responsible for such.


One of the challenges that any organization’s management faces is finding an effective strategy to match people with roles. Before answering this issue, it should be noted that one of the functions of management is to determine its manpower needs.

Manpower planning is defined as “the process by which management attempts to provide for it human resources to accomplish its task.” All businesses must plan its manpower, formally or informally.

Manpower is required in all organisations; however, knowing the amount of individuals required for recruiting, reassignment, retirement, or retention for optimum utilisation will be difficult. Manpower planning eliminates wasteful recruiting, training, and transfers, saving management money and time.

BRUCECOLEMAN highlighted in his study “AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR MANPOWER PLANNING” that considerable changes in population, technology Renovation, and size complexity of organisation have rendered informed approach of employment planning absolute for all but extremely small and stable organisations.

Uncertainty in the general business environment, as well as the realities of change, which occur regularly in both the external and internal environments of business organisations, reflect the general character of planning, which is unpredictable.

KREITHNER, IBID, p. 162 stating that manpower planning is a never-ending process requiring reviews, changes, and readjustment of goals and expectations. Thus, planning flexibility becomes critical in order to achieve set organisational goals.

Human assets change like weather, offering a severe barrier to precision analysis, measurement, or research. KREITHNER 1999 P. 48 because humans cannot be reduced to laboratory tests and they are a key success factor planning aims and aches must be altered and assessed on a constant basis as the occasion demands.

Unification of manpower planning approaches, another obvious limitation of manpower planning is the inability to reach a consensus on a single line of approach/practice in an organisation. Such an approach should systematically focus on the identification of future manpower need and problems, as may be occasioned by the fast changing business environment.


The study’s analyst believes that manpower is a critical aspect in the functioning of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Kaduna. It is a major instrument used by management to accomplish desirable objectives that are focused towards the sustainability of the organisation;

manpower is useless if it is not productive. The purpose of this study is to look at the impact of personnel planning on organisational performance at Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Kaduna.

The researcher’s work will assist the organisation in identifying and studying its flaws in workforce planning.
It will also aid in identifying the operational aspect that impedes the organization’s effective and efficient personnel planning as it affects organisational performance.
Encourage a good fit between workforce recruitment and personnel requirement


Based on the data collected, the researchers have opted to propose the following hypothesis.

HO: That good manpower planning has no effect on organisational performance.

H1: Proper workforce planning improves organisational performance.


The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate the importance of manpower in an organisation and how it helps to improve organisational performance. There is no denying that human resources or manpower are an important asset to any organisation.

It is important to note, however, that they are an expensive asset that necessitates the implementation of policies and strategies that will result in the recovery of the amount invested as well as a maximum return on investment.

As a result, this study will be of significant assistance to both public and private organisations in focusing on effective personnel planning to meet organisational goals and objectives, as well as serving as academic discipline for additional research.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of manpower and planning on organisational performance at Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Kaduna. This study was also hampered by a lack of cooperation from the workers, as well as a lack of encouragement from the organization’s management and administrative bottlenecks.


Manpower: The mental or physical effort expended by humans in the production of commodities and services.

Is a process concerned with establishing the goals, means, and behaviour of every level of organisational life. It is a management activity that begins with establishing the organization’s goal and purpose.

Is the technique of dividing work into suitable tasks or assignments by forming and maintaining similar groups to attain a given goal.
Manpower planning is a process that seeks to ensure the efficient use of people by ensuring that the proper number of workers are in the right location at the right time,

with the appropriate range of skills and expertise. people planning tries to preserve and improve an organization’s ability to meet corporate goals by designing strategies to increase the present and future contribution of people.

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