Knowledge and practise of contraception among college-aged male adolescents
Knowledge and practise of contraception among college-aged male adolescents
INTRODUCTION: Contraceptives are medications or devices that are used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant and to protect men and women from sexually transmitted diseases. How can this be drilled into our adolescent minds and used to lessen our teaming population and sexually transmitted diseases? The project was completed between March and July of 2010.
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge and increase practise of this knowledge in our teaming adolescent population, keeping in mind that a good start leads to a good end.
methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted utilising quantitative and qualitative data collection approaches. Despite the fact that sample size was computed for a finite population, the study used the entire population of student responses. A seria structured questionnaire and an observational check list were used to collect data.
The average age of the student responders was 25 + 5 years. All of the participants are male adolescent students. Contraception knowledge was 86.1% in this group, compared to 13.9% in the previous group; contraceptive use was 77%, with abstinence at 6.6% and withdrawal at 5.5%.
The students' subject of study, as well as their year of study, had no effect on their knowledge and practise of contraception. The mass media and peer group were discovered to be their primary sources of information on contraception, and whether or not their parents were living or dead did not influence their practise.
CONCLUSION: Students who were knowledgeable about contraception stated that they would continue to use it. Students' cultural values had little influence on their use of male contraception. To encourage more adolescents to utilise male contraception, the mainstream media, a veritable source of communication, should be successfully employed to encompass both urban and rural areas.
Parents, schools, and health professionals should do more to provide such guidance to adolescents in order to aid in their proactive abilities and the need for sufficient control of sexuality-related behaviours.
INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER ONE
“Contraceptives” is defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary of Current English as “a drug, device of practise used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant.”1 This definition, while broad, excludes its use as a prophylactic measure against the transmission of sexually transmitted illnesses such as aids/HIV.
Contraception has been practised since our predecessors set the time of mating with their wives or not depending on whether they wanted to have children. They have a mental picture of when their wives' monthly menstrual flow occurs or how long their wives must breastfeed their newborns to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Some traditional women go so far as to wear contraceptive bands around their waists to prevent undesired births.
Every year, 75 million unplanned pregnancies occur in women around the world. Unwanted pregnancy can arise for one of two reasons: either the couple did not use contraception or the method they used failed. people do not use contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy for a variety of reasons, including a lack of access to family planning information and services; incest or rape; personal or religious beliefs; insufficient knowledge about the risks of pregnancy following unprotected sexual relations; and women's limited decision-making ability with regard to sexual relations and contraceptive use.2 Many women are denied access to family planning services.
Contraception use by both men and women is generally acknowledged and used in the developed world. This has not been the case in the developing world, where male chauvinistic cultural beliefs hold that women should protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies, rather than males making contraception available.
The act of child bearing requires both male and female work, but in the developing world, it is viewed as a major function of the female gender. This is why, unlike female contraception, the use of contraception among men in these communities has not been advocated. The patriarchal aspect of African society does not appear to aid or encourage male contraception, but rather leads men to assume that they have no role to play in reproductive health.
The industrialised world's population has outgrown persisting beliefs and men's negative attitudes towards contraception. However, the fact that male contraception is not encouraged in developing nations has resulted in a scarcity of information about it, as well as a reduction in the need for knowledge in this field. According to studies, males demand improved contraception options.
A recent survey of British men found that 80% considered a hypothetical male pill to be one of their top three contraception options (Brooks, 1988).3. Another survey discovered that more than 60% of males in Germany, Spain, Brazil, and Mexico were willing to try a new male contraceptive method (Heinemaan, 2006).4
Another study on “why Nigerian adolescent seek abortion rather than contraception: Evidence from focus group discussions” interviewed youths about contraceptive availability, perceived advantages of technique used, side effects, and young people's reasons for using or not using contraception. fear of future infertility was discovered to be the most important factor in adolescent decisions to use induced abortion rather than contraception.5
Contraception methods – are more prevalent in the female gender than in the male.
Females have the following:
The Combined Pill: These are oral contraceptives consisting of eniphasic and biphasic pills, as well as Everyday/Ed tablets. When used correctly, they are 99% effective. They include two hormones, oestrogen and progestogen, and when taken frequently, they block ovulation.
Mini Pill: Only a progestogen pill. It is 98% effective when taken correctly and on a daily basis. It creates changes in the womb, making it difficult for sperm to enter.
Depo-provera and Noristerat are two injectable contraceptives. It works in 99% of cases. It also prevents ovulation by behaving similarly to the mini pill. It extends protection by up to three months. It could induce irregular periods and break through bleeding.
It is 96-99% successful as an intrauterine device. It is a plastic or copper device placed into the womb by a doctor that stops the ovum or egg from settling in the womb.
Diaphragm or Cap: When used correctly, it is 85-97% effective. It is a soft rubber device that is inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse to cover the cervix and create a barrier that stops sperm from meeting the egg. It must be used in conjunction with a spermicide and remained in place for six hours following intercourse.
Sponge: When used properly, it is 75 – 91% effective. To protect the cervix, a soft circular polyenthrane foam sponge is placed in the vagina up to 24 hours before intercourse. It already has a spermicide in it.
Female sterilisation is a permanent form of birth control in which the fallopian tubes are closed, preventing the egg from travelling down to meet the sperm. It is successful for life, although there is a 1:300 failure rate when the tube rejion and fertility returns.
Natural Procedures (‘Safe Period' and ‘Rhythm Method'). It is 85-95 percent effective. Its goal is to forecast ovulation when the woman is most fertile; hence, intercourse is avoided during this period. This symptom-thermal technique necessitates regular body temperature tracking, as well as documenting changes in vaginal nuclear and other indicators of ovulation.
Male contraceptive methods include:
a. Condom: When used properly, it is effective in 85-98 percent of cases. It is constructed of thin rubber and is worn on the erect penis. It stops sperm from accessing the female reproductive system. It protects both couples from sexually transmitted infections and also protects the lady against cervical cancer.
a. Male Sterilisation (Vasectomy): This is a permanent technique that includes cutting or restricting the tubes that transport sperm from the testes (vas deferens) to the penis. It is a permanent contraception procedure, similar to tubal ligation in females. To clear the entire sperm from the tube, another means of contraception must be used for around 3 months after the vasectomy. In one out of every hundred occurrences, this strategy fails.
c. Withdrawal procedure: This procedure is usually ineffective, however it is used by certain people. They remove the penis prior to ejaculation during orgasm. It is ineffective because it does not address the sperm that enters the vagina prior to orgasm.
Emergency contraception is a means of avoiding pregnancy after unprotected sexual contact, a contraceptive accident or abuse (such as condom breakage, unsuccessful coitus interruptus), or rape. In an emergency, there are two typical ways that can be used:
a. Emergency contraception tablets (ECPs).
b. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) made of copper.
These two techniques must be taken within a few days following having an unprotected sexual encounter. They are safe for the majority of women. ECPs contain the same hormones as family planning tablets, but they are utilised in a different way. They either impede egg release or prevent egg fertilisation. IUDs immobilise sperms, limit sperm motility, prevent egg fertilisation, and create uterine lining alterations that prevent pregnancy.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is true that most of our houses have poor sexual education, with the notion that being sexually educated will cause the student to be promiscuous or to test what they have learned. But, as we all know, our culture has outgrown such beliefs, and they will always have coitus, educated or not. They will constantly be impacted by their peer groups, and those who have not yet been exposed to the conduct will learn it negatively. As a result, it is now up to adults to teach the adolescent or early adult population about the reproductive organs, the use of contraception to limit the occurrence of undesired births, and even illnesses in the reproductive system.
The purpose of this study is to encourage parents and school officials to educate our future generations so that they are well-versed in family planning. Failure to do so will result in an increase in the frequency of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and an unnatural population increase in society.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The demand for contraception and population control has evolved through time, particularly in Africa, with female techniques such as the pill, injectables, and so on. Men have previously utilised only the condom and the withdrawal procedure.
The increasing need for male contraception cannot be overstated as humans become more aware that greater cooperation between spouses is required for family and reproductive health to grow and blossom; with a greater understanding that everyone involved will contribute their quota to the family's success.
To that end, there is an urgent need for research of this type to identify the contraceptive devices that may be in use now, the knowledge of their use, and how well adolescents comply with their use in order to educate them so that they can have a good start in their understanding of when to have children and when not to. This is done with the understanding that a good beginning, when properly fostered, will result in a good end.
This study will provide us with an overview of the perspective or understanding, usage or practise of contraception among these adolescents, allowing us to educate them on what constitutes appropriate family or reproductive health practise. This will result in a better moral education for the society around us.
active Research: There are numerous active research efforts on various ways of male contraception. Researchers are optimistic that a safe, effective male contraception approach will become a reality in the future, however this is still some years away.6
The two primary areas of male contraceptive research are:
a. Hormonal Contraception, in which synthetic hormones are employed to temporarily halt the creation of healthy sperm.
b. Non-Hormonal Methods – Other procedures are utilised to prevent healthy sperm from entering a woman's vagina.
1.4 GENERAL OBJECTIVES
The goal of this study was to examine males' degree of awareness of contraceptive measures in order to improve their understanding and increase their compliance with their use. This will aid us in educating them on how to avoid early pregnancies and their harmful consequences, as well as infections to their developing reproductive organs, which may lead to secondary infertility later in life.
1.5 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
1. To examine male students at the Federal College of Education Technical Asaba's knowledge of male contraception.
2. To ascertain the prevalence of male contraception among students.
3. Determine the factors that influence the use of these contraceptives among students of this age range.