INSURGENCY AND BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE study
Nigeria has faced a horrific confrontation and tremendous assault by a terrorist group that is without a doubt the most bloodthirsty and destructive, both in terms of cruelty thoughtless of barbarism and brazen disobedience to the norms of peace and stability.
Since 2009, Nigeria has been witnessing an insurgency led by the terrorist group Boko-Haram. They have instilled horror and fear in every Nigerian. There has been widespread destruction of government property, including the burning of schools and the bombing/burning of churches, mosques, and other public institutions.
Borno State, which was established in 1971, originally included the current Borno and Yobe states. Prior to the outbreak of the insurgency, Nigeria was a relatively calm, multicultural, and dynamic state. The state is lucky to have both human and natural resources, which has created numerous chances for its indigenous peoples and other Nigerians to coexist peacefully.
Borno State joined the global trend of insurgency in 2009 (Adamu, 2014). This resulted in the heinous murders of innocent Nigerian residents by an insurgent group known as Boko Haram (Adamu, 2014). They have interrupted the educational system in Borno State since 2009, with severe consequences for basic education.
The rebel group despises children attending schools and does illegal acts such as kidnapping students and harming teachers in schools (Adeyemi, 2014). The state's educational efforts have been severely damaged.
In the past, they utilised minors to carry out suicide bombings in large shopping malls, movie theatres, and bus hubs. In addition, abductions of schoolchildren and the elderly were widespread in their recent thoughtless acts.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE problem
Many primary schools in Borno and other northern states had been attacked by the insurgent group on several occasions. Some primary schools, particularly in Baga towns in northern Borno State, have been closed for two (2) years (BSMOE, 2015).
The problem may be traced back to when the Boko Haram group exploited religion to establish unnoticed laws in the community, elevated it with brutality to the state level, metamorphosed into an insurgent group, and disrupted the state's tranquilly.
Furthermore, basic education in Borno state had been experiencing serious problems prior to the insurgency, with a lack of classrooms for teaching and learning, as well as a lack of instructional materials and teachers (NUT, 2007).
This has shown that the state government underfunds basic schools, and the lack of payment of teachers' salaries, which has resulted in numerous strikes by basic school teachers, is also a source of concern for many families (NUT, 2008).
Furthermore, as the state struggles to overcome existing problems, insurgents emerged as a bigger challenge to the state, posing a threat to many parents and children of school age in Borno State. (NTA 2015)
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The goal of this research is to determine whether Boko Haram's activities have a direct impact on basic education in Nigeria, particularly in Borno. Also, to draw the authorities' attention to the negative effects of Boko Haram attacks on education in northern Nigeria.
It urges Boko Haram and other unknown shooters to halt all attacks on schools and educational infrastructure immediately, as they are jeopardising the achievement of Education for All (EFA) by 2015.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What effect does the insurgency have on school attendance among pupils/students in the affected area?
2. Has the insurgency had an impact on basic education in Borno State?
3. How has the insurgency affected the performance of teachers in Borno State?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This research hypothesis directs the investigation.
HO There is no substantial variation in school attendance between male and female pupils/students in Northern Nigerian areas prone to Boko Haram assaults.
HI In Northern Nigeria, there is a considerable gap in school attendance between male and female pupils/students in areas prone to Boko Haram assaults.
HO In Borno State, there is no significant association between the book haram insurgency and basic education.
HI In Borno State, there is a strong link between the book haram insurgency and basic education.
HO There is no substantial difference in primary/secondary school attendance in Northern Nigerian communities prone to Boko Haram attacks.
HI There is a large increase in school attendance among primary/secondary schools in Northern Nigeria areas prone to Boko Haram assaults.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study looked into the consequences of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno State and other Northern Nigerian states.
The study also looks at the impact of insurgent actions including kidnappings and attacks on teachers in Borno State's primary schools.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study's importance is to propose an applicable answer to the effect of the insurgency on basic education in Borno State and other Northern Nigerian states.
The researcher is ready to carry out this study and come up with a researchable remedy to the effect of insurgency on basic education in Nigeria.
The findings of this study will have a significant impact on education, as well as provide insight for other countries to analyse the situation in Nigeria and avoid any pre-insurgency activities in their own country.
1.8 limitations OF THE STUDY
The primary limitations of this study are time and distance between the researcher and responders. The researcher was responsible for attending courses and writing this project. Time was of the essence.
Inadequate finance also caused challenges during my education as a self-sponsored student without financial aid from friends and relatives.
The paucity of contemporary material in the polytechnic library further hampered the investigation. The researcher had to go through a large amount of information to conduct this study.
Regardless of these constraints, the researcher did his best to overcome them; thus, the reliability and authority of this research should not be underserved by its potential users.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following operational definitions are provided to ensure term clarity and knowledge of certain significant terms used in the study;
Education can be defined as a tool for constructing a cohesive, independent, prosperous egalitarian society capable of preserving traditions and values (Adesina, Fegbongbe, & Talabi, 1983).
Basic Education: In a formal school system, basic education can serve as the starting point for the acquisition of desirable skills, information, and attitudes.
Universal: A universal plan is one that is intended for all segments of society, including the poor and the wealthy, the physically impaired, and all school dropouts in Borno State.
An insurgency is a rebellion against a legitimate authority.
Insurgent: A person who rises in forcible opposition to lawful authority, particularly one who engages in armed opposition to a government or the enforcement of its laws.
Boko Haram: The phrase “Boko Haram” is derived from the Hausa word book, which means “western education,” and the Arabic word Haram, which means sin (literally “forbidden”).
Western education is outlawed, according to the word, which is loosely translated from Hausa.
A school is an institution for the instruction of children or people under the age of college.