Project Materials

RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

Importance of melon seed in the remediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil

of melon seed in the remediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

Bioremediation is one of the most viable methods for remediating soil contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds deemed hazardous to the environment. Bioremediation is the process of using microorganisms and plants to remove or detoxify organic and inorganic xenobiotics from the environment. It is a remediation option that provides a green technology remedy for hydrocarbon and heavy metal contamination.

The primary advantage of bioremediation over conventional techniques is its lower cost. In addition to being economical, it is a permanent solution that may result in the complete mineralization of the pollutant. Additionally, it is a non-invasive technique that preserves the ecosystem (Perelo, ). Bioremediation is able to handle low concentrations of contaminants where physical or chemical methods would not be practical.

For bioremediation to be successful, microorganisms must attack pollutants enzymatically and convert them into harmless products. Bioremediation is only effective when environ conditions permit microbial growth and activity, and its application frequently involves modifying environ parameters to accelerate microbial growth and degradation (Vidali, 2001).

Hydrocarbons, which are regarded as one of the world’s primary sources of energy, typically pose significant threats to both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Physical, chemical, and mechanical forms of treating or removing the contaminants have been used to remediate soil environments contaminated by hydrocarbons.

Bioremediation is a superior method for the treatment and elimination of these contaminants into harmless substances. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons in the soil environment can be accomplished through either or both of the following methods: Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation.

Microorganisms play a crucial role in the bioremediation of soil and wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. However, when microorganisms, particularly bacteria, are exposed to higher concentrations of metal, it may be lethal.

Therefore, microorganisms are only effective at low soil metal concentrations. Typically, microorganisms are used to remove heavy metals. Microorganisms can interact with metals and radionuclides through a variety of mechanisms, some of which can form the basis of potential bioremediation strategies (Lloyd et al., 2005).

Biosorption (metal sorption to cell surface by physiochemical mechanisms), bioleaching (heavy metal mobilization via the excretion of organic acids or methylation reactions), biomineralization (heavy metal immobilization via the formation of insoluble sulfides or polymeric complexes), intracellular accumulation, and enzyme-catalyzed transformation (rx reactions) are mechanisms by which microorganisms act on heavy metals (Lloyd, 2002).

Biosorption appears to be the most prevalent process (Haferburg and Knothe, ). When as a bioremediation agent, this is the only option. However, systems with living cells allow for more effective bioremediation processes because they can replenish themselves and remove metals via various mechanisms (Malik et al., 2004).

In contrast, living cells are more sensitive to environ conditions and require nutrient and energy sources. Bio-absorption and bioaccumulation of chromium by numerous microbe genera, such as Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, as well as certain yeasts and fungi, contribute to the bioremediation of metal- and chromium-contaminated soil and water (Kotas and Stasicka, 2000). The removal of heavy metals by the bacteria Pseudomonas was attributed to their cellular growth (Ray and Ray, 2009).

1.2 MENT OF

Bioremediation of engine oil-contaminated soil with agrommeral fertilizer and fermented melon seed reveals that used engine oil exerts an inhibitory or toxic effect on plant growth. The degree of crop toxicity is attributable to the contact between volatile and water-soluble hydrocarbons in used engine oil and the tender plant tissue, which results in the absorption of soluble toxic substances.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

This study aims to assess the impact of soil contaminated with waste engine oil on plant growth. The study also intends to determine the efficacy of fermented melon seed as a bioremediation agent.

1.4 of the Research

Due to the threat posed by waste engine oil to the soil, this study is of the utmost importance to researchers, farmers, the government, and society as a whole. In light of the preceding, remediation strategies place a high priority on the treatment of contaminated soil, thus the concept of bioremediation.

1.5 RADIUS OF THE STUDY

This study focuses on a single location at the College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin.

1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Bioremediation is the biological restoration of a polluted environment to its initial state.

Contaminants are substances that taint or impure something.

A microorganism is a tiny living thing that can only be seen through a microscope.

Waste Engine Oil: Any oil red from crude or synthetic oil that has been used and is contaminated by physical or chemical impurities as a result of such use.

 

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Importance of melon seed in the remediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil

 

of melon seed in the remediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil

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