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Chapter one


The only constant in nature is change. This is especially useful for industrial managers who have been obliged to work in an environment characterised by rapid change.

Globalisation and the world’s economic recession have created a need for more innovative and cost-effective ways of doing business.

Change is an unavoidable, ubiquitous, and permanent component of every organisation. Technological transformation has been the key to the success of many 21st-century organisations, as well as the cause of several failures.

Since time immemorial, the industrial revolution has brought about a factory system. A system in which machines replaced unsophisticated manpower.

Sophisticated technology has resulted in new breakthroughs and more powerful machines in response to the challenges given by continuous change. Technological advancements have resulted in the invention of assembly lines and flow line production systems.

Henry Ford is credited with bringing enormous improvements and modifications to the manufacturing process. The most innovative features of a moving mechanised assembly line.

Many successful organisations today, particularly multinational corporations (MNCS), demonstrate the positive impact of improved technology. Technology is a growth engine that all organisations must embrace if they want to compete effectively in the global economy.

Organisations do not just begin on technological development. Organisations have motivations to invest in innovative technologies. The rationales for technological change include:


Technology is a valuable resource and a significant component in enhancing production. Haye and Clark’s (1995) findings confirm this. They investigated the elements that explain productivity variations between factories. To minimise bottlenecks in production and maintain the level of output, organisations must embrace technological development.


Globalisation and economic deregulation have resulted in a high level of global competitiveness. It has made it necessary for organisations to stay on their toes.

Technological advancements enable organisations to compete effectively in the global economy. Organisations who fail to accept new technologies will confront difficult problems in a competitive environment.

Quality Control

Organisations are required to develop standardised and high-quality products in order to respond quickly to environmental concerns. This is only possible with the use of technology that allows the quality of items to be controlled. For example, computer-aided design (CAD) and Auto-CAD have improved the precision of manufacturing operations.

Another reason for technical change is to reduce costs and eliminate waste. Advanced technology is the most cost-effective means of conducting business. The computer-controlled production process eliminates lengthy setup times, reducing bottlenecks and assisting in the division of output.


An organisation uses technology to perform successfully and efficiently. The customer’s needs are swiftly addressed. To attain effectiveness and efficiency, organisations turn to technology change as a solution to organisational and operational inefficiencies.

The availability of technology, technical know-how, and human resources is critical to a multinational company’s success. Recently, most organisations have used microelectronics to drastically transform the nature of work and employment conditions for employees.

Technological advancements have also resulted in a flatter organisational pyramid, with fewer levels of management necessary.

The topic of technological change and its accompanying impacts on organisations has long been debated, and recent developments in the fields of electronics and information technology (IT) have piqued the imagination and thus sparked speculation.

1.1 Statement of the Problems

Technological development has resulted in the reorganisation of work and industrial processes. Organisations in the early days of the manufacturing system were labour intensive.

Operations were carried out with a human element, but with the discovery of new technology, there is a constant shift away from the traditional system, and organisational tasks become machine intensive. As a result, many organisations embraced technological development in response to time and environmental constraints.

Advanced technology, such as computers, has increased flexibility in work organisation, making tasks easier and faster. Essentially, it introduces a high level of operational efficiency and innovative patterns of work organisation.

The issue in this study is the consequences of technological development, despite the benefits to the organisation. Its acceptance has both human and social repercussions. Organisational change is frequently opposed, and resistance from employees and clients may create a problem.

Another issue is that existing positions are being eliminated. Employees who are not multiskilled face the possibility of being laid off. This causes labour unions to oppose computerization due to the displacement of members from their positions, particularly secretaries and staff who are not computer proficient or technologically minded.

Another issue with this research is that technology change reduces worker morale, confusion, and dissatisfaction, which can substantially undermine management credibility.

Another issue addressed in this paper is industrial accidents. Installing new technology without properly training the workers can have undesirable consequences.

Failure to align technical progress with simultaneous human and social factors can lead to personnel becoming disgruntled, sceptical, and defensive. Their uncertainty and worry may cause a reluctance to accept change.

However, the psychological and social consequences of technological progress, such as information technology and increased automation, should not be overlooked.

Employees should not perceive new ideas and developments as threats. Managers must strike a balance between the requirement for adaptation and capitalising on new technology prospects with a climate of stability and regard for employees’ interests.

1.2 Study Objectives

Aside from adding to the scarcity of available works on technological development in Nigeria, the study has the following objectives:

a. To investigate the reasons behind organisational change.

b. To investigate the problem resulting from the change in organisation.

b. Identify and address workforce issues resulting from the implementation of automation technology.

d. Determine the impact of technological development on workers and their unions.

e. To assess the costs and benefits of new technology vs traditional systems.

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