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Chapter one

1.1 Introduction

Individuals can think of leadership as both their property and a process that they carry out. Leadership, as property, refers to a set of attributes possessed or assigned to persons who carry out the leadership process.

Leadership is a process that involves using influence to support and motivate the behaviour of others. Despite the fact that leadership can manifest itself in a variety of ways, the simplicity with which it can be observed, as well as the substantial study focused on it, remains a perplexing subject for managers and educators alike.

Despite several studies on leadership, one notable researcher has stated that the idea of leadership has outlived its usefulness and should be replaced by another (Miner, 1975). However, the concept of leadership will endure, and researchers will continue to conduct leadership studies.

Many people think of managers as leaders, but you may be a leader without being a manager, and vice versa. However, being a leader is an essential component of efficient management. To some, the terms manager and leader have quite distinct meanings.

Peter and Austin (1970) distinguish between managers and leaders, associating managers with terms such as pronouncers, decision makers, referees, cops, controlling, and restraining individuals.

Leadership, on the other hand, is about dealing with change, which has become increasingly important in recent years as the business world has become more competitive and volatile.

Factors contributing to this shift include faster technological change, increased international competition, market deregulation, overcapacity in capital-intensive industries, an oil cartel, and changing workforce demographics.

However, for leadership to achieve a vision, it is necessary to motivate and inspire people, keeping them moving in the correct path despite enormous transformation hurdles, by appealing to basic but often untapped human needs, worth, emotions, and ambitions.

Leaders can be classified according to a variety of principles. The most popular classification has been based on leadership style. Among the early studies of leadership was that of LIPPITT and WHITE (1943), who classified leadership styles as “autocratic,” “democratic,” and “laissez-faire.”

The Ohio State University leadership studies were the first and most significant systematic endeavour to identify leaders’ behaviours. Over the last 30 years, they have concentrated on two key behaviours: initiating structure and consideration.

Since 1942, the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research has performed a variety of industrial-based research to investigate the relationships between leadership principles and styles and job success. They believe that “employee-centered” supervision produces more work satisfaction than “job-centered” supervision Likert (1961).

SELVIN (1961) created a three-dimensional model of perceived leadership atmosphere;

i. Paternal: Leaders are respected, feared, and reviled.

ii. Persuasive, in which trainees trust their leaders and receive significant support.

iii. Arbitrary, in which the leaders were viewed as loof, primitive, inconsistent, untrustworthy, and lacking in confidence.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The slow rate of work performance in Nigerian organisations is due to leadership issues. The slow rate of job execution has resulted in low production. Despite the availability of human and natural resources, we have expatriate experience in leadership roles inside our businesses.

The primary goal of an organisation is to achieve its goals and objectives, which necessitates good coordination and motivation of work towards completion by successful leaders.

Unfortunately, some businesses prioritise elements such as money, incentives, and/or physiological considerations over the leadership style(s) of their leaders.

Throughout this study, solutions to ineffective leader-subordinate relationships will be proposed in order to increase employee satisfaction and productivity.

1.3 Purpose and Objective of the Study

This study is intended to examine the leadership styles employed by managers (Leaders) to guide the organisation towards accomplishing its goals.

The study seeks to investigate the impact of leadership style on work performance.

As a result, the study will investigate and evaluate a variety of leadership styles in order to determine which ones may be suggested to the organisation and other organisations in order to improve job performance.

Aside from investigating the impact of leadership style on employee performance, this study will also look into the generalisation of previous researchers in this field, which has produced controversial results on leadership style and employee job performance.


The following general research questions were deemed relevant for this study:

(1) How much can leadership style influence employees’ excellent performance?

(2) Does the characteristics of the work environment influence leadership style?

(3) Does the organisational chart/structure determine leadership style?

(4) Do employees desire to be satisfied with their manager’s leadership style so that they can perform better?

(5) Can work performance be quantified in terms of production or output?

(6) What leadership style is most effective?

1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis

To carry out this research study efficiently, the following hypotheses will be investigated for validity or otherwise in order to demonstrate the relationship between the two variables in question, namely leadership style and job performance.

1. Ho: The sort of leadership style used has no effect on staff performance.

Hi: The sort of leadership style used has an impact on employees’ job performance.

2. Ho: Effective communication isn’t required for effective leadership.

Hello: Effective communication is required for effective leadership.

3. Ho: Better performance by subordinates does not imply that they are satisfied with management.

Hi: Better performance by subordinates indicates that they are satisfied with management.

1.6 Definition of Terms

1. POWER: The ability to accomplish or act and exert control over others. It could also be interpreted as the right to do something.

2. LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS: Qualities that a leader possesses.

3. MANAGEMENT: The process or act of allocating a company’s resources to achieve a goal.

4. Role: A prominent portion or function.

5. PLC (Public Limited Liability Company)

6. PERFORMANCE: The completion of a task.

7. LEADERSHIP STYLE: A reasonable condition of behaviour that a leader employs in his efforts to lead.

8. LEADER: Someone who motivates people to attain a goal.

9. MANAGER: A person who is formally responsible for the job performance of others in an organisation.

10. THEORY: A collection of reasoned ideas used to explain facts or happenings.

11. HYPOTHESIS: A tentative statement that is susceptible to verification to determine if it is valid or not.

12. LEADERSHIP: The practice of influencing an organization’s or organised group’s activities in order to define and achieve goals.

13. POLICY: A guideline for an action.

14. OBJECTIVES: This is a statement of the long-term goals that an organisation aims to achieve.

15. GOALS: A statement of short-term objectives that an organisation wishes to attain.

16. MANAGEMENT: A process by which limited resources are integrated to achieve specific goals.

17. MANAGERIAL FUNCTION: The primary tasks or responsibilities performed by managers in the administration of an organisation.

18. SUBORDINATES: Followers of a leader.

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