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Chapter one

1.1 Introduction

Poverty’s complex character makes it difficult to define precisely. Poverty is also a relative concept, referring to an individual’s view of his or her social standing in comparison to others in a given community. Such a notion underpins the position of economists who argue that poverty cannot be measured. Okoh, (1998).

However, other researchers have attempted to define poverty. For example, Ravallion and Bidani (1994) define poverty as a lack of command over basic consumer demands, which results in insufficient food, clothing, and shelter. Aluko N.L. (1975) and Sen N.L. (1987) described poverty as a lack of particular capabilities, such as the ability to engage with dignity in society endeavours.

Poverty is sometimes described as the inability to meet a minimum level of living. World Development Report (1990).

Definition of a poor person. A poor person is defined as someone who is unemployed, unable to support himself or his family, and who does not have money, a farm, or a business. Adolescent males and females are poor if they do not have a parent, an education, adequate food, clothing, or health.

A poor person is described as one who is undernourished and ageing quickly, one who lacks self-confidence, looks unclean and lives in a filthy environment, one who is unable to provide for his family, educate his children, or pay medical bills (The World Bank, 1992).

Women and children are the most vulnerable to poverty, with the majority of them living in rural areas or migrating from rural areas and being unable to find work in metropolitan areas.

Aina and Odebiyi (1997) attributed urban poverty to a high rate of urbanisation, which is accompanied by a high rate of migration, population density, a high rate of population growth, unemployment, inflation, and poor governance (such that urban centres in Nigeria generally lack basic social infrastructure to meet the needs of the growing population).

Poverty became widespread in Nigeria following the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). When Babangida took over the government from Buhari, the former agreed to implement the International Monetary Fund (IMF) conditions since poverty had become visible in Nigeria, particularly among rural people, leading to rural-urban migration.

According to D.O. Elumilade (2006), Babangida squandered over 100 billion Naira on ghost projects. These programmes included the one established by his wife, Better Life programmes for the poor, DEFRI, People’s Bank of Nigeria, two democratic transition attempts, and other major corruption in the Babangida regime that profited themselves (D.O. Elumilade, 2006).

Poverty in Nigeria affects all thirty-six states as well as the federal capital territory of Abuja. However, Lagos state’s position as Nigeria’s former capital and commercial nerve core exacerbated the problem.

Lagos attracts people from various rural settlements in Nigeria, particularly young people who regard it as a destination full of economic opportunity.

However, the recent excessive migration of people from all over the country into Lagos has had an impact on the economy’s allocation of wealth, resources, and infrastructure. This has resulted in an economic imbalance in which available wealth, resources, and infrastructure appear to be allocated among the powerful and elites in society.

A notable symptom of poverty in the state is the high crime rate, malnutrition, a big population of street urchins (Area boys), and the construction of several slums in and around Lagos by those who cannot afford to live in decent housing. Some of these slums are Maroko, Ajegunle, and Mushin, to name a few.

The living conditions in these communities are so poor that the residents are unable to afford basic necessities such as nutritious food, housing, and clothing. People in these settlements also have limited access to basic infrastructure like as roads, proper education, and medical facilities, among other things.

Another aspect of poverty is the excessive use of available resources such as roads, health care facilities, power (electrical installations), water, and transportation systems.

Poverty and economic imbalance in Lagos have had a significant impact on the development of touts and miscreants known as ‘Agbero’ or “Omoota,” or Motor Park touts.

These individuals are so merciless in their actions that they pose a significant threat to the state’s peace and safety, as well as the security of lives and property.

Poverty has various core causes, and while it is primarily associated with very low income earners, it manifests itself in a variety of ways, most notably starvation, illness, and illiteracy.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Massive poverty in Nigeria has resulted in a slew of social and security issues. There is no doubt that some variables among the impoverished are to blame for this morally repugnant epidemic.

The previously clear lack of a coordinated institutional and policy framework in Nigeria to address the scourge of poverty was a significant obstacle. Based on these data, this research aims to answer the following questions:

1. What are the repercussions of poverty on urban residents?

2. What is the relationship between the Keke NAPEP effort and poverty reduction among operators?

3. Are there any problems impeding the success of keke NAPEP in poverty alleviation?

4. What are the durability, efficiency, and total maintenance implications of Keke NAPEP?

5. What contributions do keke NAPEP’s road network, traffic, and transport officials make?

1.3 Statement of Hypothesis

The following hypothesis will be tested at a significance level of 0.5.

1. Keke NAPEP has greatly reduced poverty among its operators.

2. Keke NAPEP is inexpensive to maintain and operate.

3. The road network has no substantial impact on Keke NAPEP operation.

4. There is no substantial correlation between traffic and profitability.

1.4 Justification for the Study

Poverty is a serious issue among Nigeria’s population. Its major reduction is a task that the previous and current governments have continued to pursue through various programmes and policies.

One such scheme is KEKE NAPEP, which has been in place for almost a decade. This study is required to determine how well the programme has done in terms of poverty alleviation.

The research’s findings are supposed to identify the achievement or problem(s) encountered by the programme in the study area in order to develop an acceptable remedy.

1.5 Object of the Study

The study’s overarching goal is to investigate the impact of KEKE NAPEP as a poverty reduction approach in the Ojokoro Local Government Area of Lagos State. The precise aims include:

(i) Determine if the economic well-being of operators in the research region has improved or not.

(ii) Assess the suitability of the working environment for KEKE NAPEP in the study area.

(iii) Determine whether or whether the period of operation influences operators’ average revenue.

(iv) Determine the various costs incurred by operators in the research region.

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