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Chapter one


1.1 Background for the Study

Environment refers to the surrounding conditions and external forces that influence employee productivity, regardless of the structure of the organisation.

Employee productivity in both the public and commercial sectors is determined by a variety of factors, the immediate or working environment being one of the most important in guaranteeing the best performance of an individual or group of workers.

Positive and negative work environments are critical in achieving optimal employee performance in an organisation, according to Decenzo and Robbins (1998).

The type of environment in which workers work has a significant impact on how successful a business is. Organisations’ work environments account for around 86% (86%) of productivity problems. Akinyele (2010).

The productivity of a corporation’s personnel has a significant impact on its survival and growth. According to Akinyele (2010), workers’ productivity cannot be ideal if the working conditions are unfavourable. Brenner (2004).

It should be noted that employees carry out official duties with enthusiasm in a pleasant working atmosphere. A conducive workplace supports employees’ well-being, allowing them to exert themselves in their responsibilities, resulting in increased production.

A favourable environment undermines motivation and aspirations for maximum output in an organisation, according to Akinyele (2007).

A working environment in which personnel have appropriate materials at their disposal boosts their performance(s) and productivity. In today’s Nigeria, industries, factories, and public sectors are not producing effectively due to non-conducive environmental factors.

For example, the rise of insurgency in the Northeast of Nigeria has made most of the working environment unfriendly for employees in private and public institutions, causing them to perform ineffectively, lowering their overall productivity.

Employee performance improves when the working environment provides steady and long-term employment security. According to surveys conducted throughout the years, the majority of people prefer to work for government-owned organisations rather than private ones.

This can be demonstrated by the fact that government-owned institutions rarely conduct unexpected and unannounced mass layoffs of employees, and that workers’ retention is assured for the greatest number of years when compared to privately-owned institutions Alam & Sameena (2012).

In addition to the long-term viability of a successful organisation, another critical factor is the issue of continual training and workforce development with appropriate and up-to-date approaches for their respective occupations.

Employees who attend seminars and trainings on a regular basis are encouraged to provide their best not just in their daily responsibilities but also in furthering their career growth. Casio (1989).

Another factor influencing employee performance in organisations and educational institutions is the location or distance between the work and living environments. This defines how productive or unproductive employees are based on how close or far they live to the working environment.

Employees who live far from their workplace spend a quarter of their allocated office hours recovering from weariness caused by the long distance transportation issues from home to their everyday working environment.

In addition to other variables, employers’ leadership styles in the workplace should be considered. According to Ricthmond (2009), personnel who work in an atmosphere that promotes democratic decision-making perform better in their official assignments than those who work in an environment that encourages authoritarian decision-making approaches.

This is visible in higher education institutions, when management makes democratic decisions on behalf of the institution’s personnel.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This section highlights some of the issues that higher-education professionals face in terms of being unable to fulfil their responsibilities to the best of their abilities due to environmental circumstances.

There are numerous environmental variables that work against employees’ optimal performance(s) in educational institutions, including independent variables such as irregular and non-payment of salaries, wages, and other compensation packages to higher-education personnel.

Furthermore, the utilisation of constant mobility of highly qualified professional people, both academic and non-academic, from government tertiary institutions to privately held institutions in Nigeria and beyond.

Specialists in many fields of knowledge either attended private educational institutions in Nigeria or travelled overseas in search of greener pastures.

This can be linked mostly to the government’s incapacity to provide the basic necessary infrastructure required for a research environment and policy execution that would improve the lives of the majority of qualified persons.

Kyko (2005) defined the “Toxic Work Environment” as the physical environment and offices located near sites where disagreeable odours and air pollution occur on a regular basis. Employees in higher education whose workplaces are located near restrooms and are poorly ventilated create detrimental results.

Furthermore, the fear or expectation of not receiving other due benefits such as pension allowances from the federal government at the end of their service is a source of contention.

This became a dreaded phenomena for higher education employees as a result of a massive financial swindle that rocked Nigeria’s pension system. As a result, the purpose of this research is to look into how these contextual variables affect employee performance.

1.3 Goals and Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of environmental variables on employee performance, with specific objectives to:

i. Investigate the effects of irregular and non-payment of salary and other compensatory incentives on worker productivity levels in select higher education institutions.

ii. Determine the detrimental impact of labour mobility on the job performance of employees at chosen higher institutions.

iii. Determine how physical elements such as fatigue, noise, ventilation, and tidiness affect employee productivity.

1.4 Research Question.

The following questions will be raised during the course of this investigation.

i. What effect do irregular and non-payment of workers’ salaries have on their production levels?

ii. Does the mobility of skilled professionals have a detrimental impact on the total productivity of workers from specific educational institutions?

iii. Do physical elements like noise, appropriate ventilation, and weariness have a negative impact on employee productivity?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis I

Ho: There is no substantial association between irregular and nonpayment of workers’ salaries and worker productivity.

Hypothesis II.

Ho: There is no substantial association between the transfer of highly skilled people and the influence on worker productivity in some selected educational institutions.

Hypothesis III.

Ho: There is no substantial association between physical elements like as noise, ventilation, weariness and adverse effects on staff productivity. The following nun hypothesis was developed for probable acceptance or rejection.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The report is a valuable resource for individuals and groups interested in learning more about the impact of environmental variables on employee performance in higher education.

It promotes additional education on several factors, motivating personnel to give their all in various fields of effort in Federal and Privately Owned Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State.

It is also significant because it informs readers and the general public about some people’s perceptions of the true impact of leaders (management) in addressing the issues faced by employees in higher education.

This is because some people believe that the management of some of the higher education institutions mentioned never contributed to the growth and development of their employees

while others disagree. It is also instructive to notice that this study attempts to situate areas of these perceived or actual contributions of management.

This study is especially significant since it analyses the Expectancy theory in relation to how management interprets the process for the administration of the selected higher education institutions.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses solely on federal and privately owned higher education institutions in the Yaba Local Government region. These educational institutions include the University of Lagos, Yaba College of Technology, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, and St. Augustine College of Education.

1.7 Limitations of the Methodology

The primary constraint of research in higher education is depends on how you disseminate your questionnaires. While some respondents did not provide correct and reliable answers, other constraints are unwillingness and disagreeable attitude, which caused the delay in the return of questionnaires from respondents.

1.8 Definition of Terms.

Employees: This is an individual who works part-time or full-time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written, and has recognised rights and responsibilities.

Mobility of Labour: As used in this project, this term refers to the migration of skilled workers from one educational institution to another as a result of financial benefits received by the individuals in question.

Tertiary Institutions: These are educational institutions or citadels of learning whose primary job is to admit, train, and affect knowledge transfer over a set period of time.

Pension: This is the legal cash payout that retirees are entitled to receive on a monthly basis from their savings earned while working.

Variable is a construct that can be allocated numerical values.

Worker Productivity: This can be defined as a worker’s efficiency level in the production process or their performance in accordance with the stated objectives and job assigned by the employer.

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