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1.1      Background of the Study

Lagos is the economic and social “nucleus” of Nigeria and the West African sub region, accounting for 32 per cent of national GDP. It is also one of the fastest-growing cities in the world; by 2015, it is expected to be the globe’s third largest city, according to UN estimates. Over the past decades, the city has had to contend with the challenges that accompanied staggering population growth rates. But since 1999, a consistent leadership has guided a reform process hinged on sustainable urban development. Now, Lagos’s transformation is emerging from its former status as an infamous, decaying metropolis into a modern, attractive, and functional city.

Lagos is a classic example of a modern city, having transformed from a small farming and fishing village in the fifteenth century to a burgeoning megacity in 2010, when its population rose to over 10 million people. Until recently, this megacity4 was generally written about in a negative light and frequently satirized. Today, however, the face of Lagos is changing as a result of a series of transformations effected by a new style of governance adopted from 1999.

In the past, scant attention was paid to land-use planning, basic infrastructure, and other public services needed to sustainably accommodate the city’s exploding population growth. One of the most visible manifestations of this was severe traffic congestion, which ultimately led to the relocation of Nigeria’s political capital from Lagos to Abuja in 1986. Now, new parks are just one sign that Lagos is on a new path towards sustainable urban development. Less visible signs of local government reform include improvements in basic city services and physical infrastructure.

Since Nigeria returned to democratic governance in 1999, the successive governors of Lagos State have initiated and pursued a knowledge-based approach to critical reforms. Aside from promoting sustainable development, these reforms also span resource mobilisation, innovative and inclusive approaches to spatial planning principles, transportation upgrades, provision of educational health care services and facilities, and partnership building with the private sector in development. As a result of these reforms, Lagos is being transformed into a modern city that offers a high level of services provided by an increasingly efficient city administration.

1.2      Statement of the Problem

Demographic change is one of the key challenges today for urban development together with globalization, knowledge/technological shift, climate change and the development of the green economy, inclusiveness and poverty. Strategic solutions cannot be based on addressing one of these factors alone but must take into account the interplay of these elements within a particular local area of development (urban or rural). At the same time that there are important challenges to be addressed, there are also opportunities to be fostered such as the development of the “silver” economy of older entrepreneurs, the “white” economy for medical services for the elderly population, or the natural “green” advantage of shrinking areas. However, policy responses are still fragmented and there is no articulation of a sustainable answer to ensure and increase the quality of life in the light of these changes.

1.3   Objectives of the Study

1. To deduce the history of development and its impact on the demographic change of Lagos state.

2. To determine the impact of demographic change on Lagos state residents.

3. To create an overview of the history of the development and demographic change of Lagos state.

1.4   Research Questions

1. Does development impacts on the demographic change of Lagos state?

2. What is the impact of demographic change on Lagos state residents?

3.     To create an overview of the history of the development and demographic change of Lagos state.

1.5   Research Hypothesis

Ho: Development does not significantly impact on the demographic change of Lagos state.

Hi: Development significantly impacts on the demographic change of Lagos state.

1.6   Significance of the Study

Historical demography is an important component of demography. Its aim is to obtain detailed information about population changes and people’s demographic behaviour in the past through applying demographic methods to historical data.

Historical demography has made a significant contribution to the development of demography. Through enriching the knowledge about demographic behaviour and population changes in the past, historical demography helps us to gain a better understanding of demographic trends in contemporary societies and future

1.7   Scope of the Study

This research work is on the history of development and demographic change in Lagos state. Lagos state is used as case study due to representative nature of Lagos state to other developing states in Nigeria and proximity to the researcher.

1.8   Limitations of the Study

This study has some limitations most especially in the area of data collection. Financial constraints as well as time available for the completion of the study are among other factors that would limit the scope of the study.

1.9   Definition of terms

Development: The act or process of growing or causing something to grow or become larger or more advanced.

Demography:The study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.

Change:An act or process through which something becomes different.

Lagos State:  Is a state located in the southwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria.

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