Project Materials




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Chapter one

1.0 Introduction.

Opportunistic Network is an intriguing breakthrough in the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) environment and a viable technology for realising the goal of pervasive computing.

The Opportunistic network [16] is comprised of mobile wireless network devices with good sensing capabilities, memory, and brief radio transmission functionality. These gadgets are typically carried by humans, animals, and automobiles, among others.

The exceptions in the Opportunistic Network, such as network failure, node failure, and infrequent node contact, are mostly caused by battery failure and device power management.

Regardless, the mobility of these devices is leveraged to form an opportunistic network. The mobility of these wireless devices is used to establish communication between nodes when the path connecting them is never completed or there is no direct connection to the internet.

The network is frequently divided into regions, and nodes are connected using a store-carry forward protocol. A node can store and forward messages within the same region or across regions, operating as a router or gateway, respectively. A node can also serve as a host, where data is eventually kept [6].

In Opportunistic Network, nodes are independent of network topology, however in MANET, this is not the case. Routes in the Opportunistic Network are not preset. While a message is being routed from source to destination, any node can act as the next hop if it is closer to the destination.

Figure 1.1: Sending an email using the Opportunistic Network.

Figure 1.1 [15] illustrates how an opportunistic network behaves in real life. A woman with a laptop at the bottom of Figure 1.1 is attempting to send an email to a friend. To assure message delivery, complete the procedures below:

 The lady uses Wi-Fi to send a message to a nearby bus, thinking it will reach her friend more quickly.

 A device in the bus sends a message to a lady with a phone, hoping to reach the designated location.

 The lady’s phone sends a message to a wireless network device carried by her pet.

 The man near the destination sends the email to her pal over Wi-Fi link.

Researchers have shifted their focus to routing and data forwarding due to the network’s mobility. The routing protocol in the Opportunistic Network is divided into three categories: mobility class, context-oblivious, and social context-aware routing [5]. Lilien explored the security and privacy challenges of opportunistic networks in [10].

1.1 Statement of the Problem

An opportunistic network is a type of distributed system in which resources are limited, requiring processes or nodes to share resources. Mutual exclusion is essential to ensure nodes’ integrity when accessing a shared resource.

This gives nodes exclusive access to shared resources, allowing them to execute crucial sections. Mutual exclusion ensures that no more than one node runs the critical part at any given moment.

Mutual exclusion techniques are assessed based on the number of messages generated per crucial section entry, synchronisation delay, concurrency, and quantity of information control.

Researchers have paid little attention to this issue in Opportunistic networks. Tamhane [20] presented and demonstrated a unique token-based Mutual Exclusion algorithm for opportunistic networks.

Over the last few decades, Joung has developed an intriguing extension of the mutual exclusion problem known as the Group Mutual Exclusion (GME) problem. It is referred to as the Congenial Talking Philosopher [8].

Joung’s primary goal is to improve concurrent access to a vital section by preventing delays in processes waiting to use the same resources as those performing the critical section.

This phenomenon allows resources to be shared by processes within the same group but not by processes from separate groups. In other words, at most one group of processes runs their key section concurrently.

A CD jukebox is a prime example of the Group Mutual Exclusion problem. Data is saved on disc. Only one disc is loaded at a time, allowing multiple programmes to access it concurrently. To the best of our knowledge, no GME method has been proposed for the opportunistic network.

1.2 Research Objectives

This Master’s project aims to evaluate GME algorithms for MANET and apply them to opportunistic networks.

ii. Develop a GME algorithm for an opportunistic network based on an existing algorithm.

iii. Prove that the algorithm meets the GME Properties.

1.3 Approach Adopted

The scientific approach used to solve the stated problem and achieve our aims includes:

i. Evaluating the suggested GME algorithm for MANET and determining whether it is appropriate to an opportunistic network based on the method’s assumptions.

ii. Proposing an existing algorithm that will be adapted to address the GME problem in OPPNET.

1.4 Organisation of Work

The remainder of the report is arranged as follows: Chapter 2 surveys related work in Group Mutual Exclusion problems and evaluates existing MANET algorithms.

Chapter 3 defines the proposed algorithm. The proof of the algorithm will be presented in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter concludes and discusses future projects.

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