female students' PERSPECTIVES ON sexual HARASSMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF JOS.
Sexual harassment (SH), which encompasses a range of behavioral patterns ranging from unwanted verbal advances to physical assault, is a major reproductive health concern around the world. In Nigeria, studies have shown that students in higher education institutions are vulnerable to SH. However, its prevalence among student nurses has not been thoroughly investigated. As a result, the prevalence of SH among students at Jos University was determined in this study.
The descriptive cross-sectional study at UNIJOS used a two-stage sampling technique to select 250 consenting female students at various levels of study. For data collection, a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire containing information about students' perceptions and prevalence of SH, types, and consequences was used. At the 0.05 level of significance, descriptive and Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data.
The average age of respondents was 23.0 4.1 years, and 78.8 percent were females. The majority of respondents (91.2 percent) thought SH was common in school. Fifty-eight percent of respondents (11.6 percent males and 46.4 percent females) had been sexually harassed at some point in their lives.
Unwanted body contact (79.3 percent), breast contact (67.6 percent), enticement (45.5 percent), attempted rape (39.3 percent), and unwanted kissing were all common SH experiences (26.3 percent ). Suggestionive dressing (55.2 percent) and peer influence were identified as predisposing factors for SH (56.0 percent ). Hatred (80.8 percent), depression (68.4 percent), fear of recurrence (74.8 percent), and loss of concentration on academics were among the negative consequences experienced (68.0 percent ).
There was a significant relationship between respondents' perception of the prevalence of SH and their experience with SH.
Attending parties and wearing provocative clothing were linked to an increased risk of SH. Though the respondents' coping strategies were reported to be ineffective, the ones unique to males included reporting to school authorities (72.0 percent), lecturers (62.1 percent), and confrontation (55.2 percent )
Sexual harassment is common among students, with females being more vulnerable. To address these concerns, institutional-based interventions such as sensitization, coping strategy skill development, legislation, and punitive policy reviews are required.
1.0 introduction TO CHAPTER ONE
1.1 The Study's Background
1.2 Problem Description
1.3 The Study's Objectives
1.4 research Issues
1.5 Research Theories
1.6 Importance of the Research
1.7 Study Scope and Limitations
1.8 Operational Terminology Definition
1.9 Organizational Structure
2.0 Section Two-
REVIEW OF RELATED WORKS
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
3.1 Research Plan
3.2 Study Participants
3.3 Sampling and Sample Size
3.4 Data Collection Method
3.5 Research Instrument Validity and Reliability
3.6 Data analysis Method
4.1 Information Display
4.2 Data Examination
4.3 Findings Discussion
A summary of the findings
1.1 The Study's Background
Sexual harassment has been defined as any unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other physical and expressive sexual behavior (Bonnie 2009). It is aggravated when (1) such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment, academic success, or any other right, or (2) an individual's submission to or rejection of such conduct is used as the basis for academic, employment, or other
decisions affecting the individual, or (3) such conduct has the purpose or effect of significantly interfering with an individual's academic or professional performance or of creating a hostile work environment (Ladebo, 2003). Unwanted and unwelcomed sexual advances may include unwanted and unwelcomed sexual words, deeds, actions, gestures, symbols, or behaviors that make the target feel uncomfortable (Critina, 2012).
Both the victim and the harasser can be female or male. The victim does not have to be of the same gender as the perpetrator. The harasser could be the victim's supervisor, an employer's agent, a supervisor in another department, a coworker, a co-student, or a non-employer. The victim may not be the person harassed, but anyone who is affected by the offensive behavior.
Unlawful sexual harassment can occur without causing economic harm or discharging the victim. The harasser's behavior must be unacceptable (U.S. equal employment opportunity commission). Sexual harassment can take many forms, including visual (gestures, objects, pictures, posters, and pinups), verbal (derogatory comments, jokes, and demands), and physical (unwanted touching, coerced kissing, and others). 2014 (Taiwo, Omole, and Omole)
Sexual harassment has long been a source of concern for authorities and governments worldwide. Several studies have found an increase in the prevalence of sexual harassment across the continent, industries, and occupations, as well as the negative consequences. 2009 (Corgin and Fish)
In Nigeria, the prevalence of sexual harassment lags behind the global trend, though it appears to be under-researched and under-reported (Ladebo 2003). Kelly (2000) discovered that both employees and students experience sexual harassment, with 62 and 43 percent experiencing it, respectively, while students (41 percent) are more likely to be the target of unwanted sexual attention than employees (30 percent).
Sexual harassment existed long before the term “sexual harassment” was coined in 1975. Sexual harassment in the nursing profession was first reported/observed during the Crimean War, when drunken non-commissioned officers, male porters loitering in hospital stairwells, and maltreatment by male physicians and surgeons made themselves objectionable to student nurses (Kaye 2000).
Nursing, as a predominantly female profession, faces a number of gender-related oppression issues, according to Kaye (e.g. understanding, occupational hazards, low job mobility and pay). Despite legislation designed to punish offenders, nurses continue to face sexual harassment and hostile work environments. However, such laws do not exist in developing countries (Kaye 2000).
Various studies conducted in various centers at various times reveal a high prevalence of SH. For example, a study conducted in Israel (2003) revealed a 90% prevalence, whereas in Lima, Peru, sexual harassment was more than 50% prevalent (Bronner,2003).
In Japan, the prevalence of SH was found to be 55%. (Yuri, Keiki and Michion, 2006). In the United Kingdom, a study of higher medical school students revealed a 35% prevalence, with patients, male doctors, and male nurses being the most common perpetrators (Sava, Finis and Lan 2007).
Sexual harassment appears to be understudied and underreported in Nigerian universities. According to the Commission on Review of Higher Education in Nigeria (CRHEN), the phenomenon is gradually assuming a critical dimension in Nigeria's higher education institutions. According to a study of four Nigerian universities, students identified sexual harassment as one of the stressors impeding academic work.
Ladebo (2001) Another survey of teachers' and students' perceptions of sexual harassment in Nigerian tertiary institutions found that the majority of respondents agreed that SH is common in schools (Aluede, Imokhire and Idogho .2011).
The consequences of sexual harassment vary depending on the degree and type of harassment. Victims of sexual harassment may experience fear, intimidation, harassment, shame, and helplessness, according to Bonnie (2009). (Aluede, Imokhire and Idogho .2011). Other mental and physical consequences of sexual victimization and/or harassment have also been established by researchers (Careln 2004).
Some sexual assault researchers discovered consequences such as fear, anger, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidal feelings, and low self-esteem in many survivors (Neville, Heppner, Oh, Spanierman, & Clark, 2004).
Matson (2006) and Campbell & Raja (2005) identified mistrust and negative attitude towards men, avoidance of sexual relationships, self guilt, depression, distrust, and reluctance to seek help, most likely from the opposite sex, as culturally sensitive responses by African Americans who survived sexual assault.
As painful and sensitive as sexual harassment and related acts such as sexual assault, sexual victimization, sexual violence, and so on are, there is a significant underreporting of occurrences. Sexual harassment incidents are rarely reported by victims, despite their negative physical and psychological effects. Ladebo (2003)
In a study conducted in the south-western part of Nigeria, only two of the eight rape victims interviewed in depth had revealed the incident to anyone (Ajuwon 2005). Furthermore, Ellsberg, Winkvist, and Pena (2001) reported that women are typically more reluctant to discuss sexual abuse by non-partners than by partners, so special methods are required to encourage disclosure.
According to Bonnie (2009), there are several reasons why sexual harassment incidents go unreported by victims: Victims believe that if the harassment is ignored, it will stop; they are afraid that no one will believe them; they feel intimidated, embarrassed, ashamed, or helpless; they are unfamiliar with college policies and complaint-resolution producers relating to sexual harassment (where such policies exist); they fear retaliation from the harasser, his or her colleagues, or the college; and they assume that the harasser will face no consequences, even if the allegations are proven to be false.
In light of the foregoing, it is natural to wonder what coping strategies are used to deal with the situations. According to Kelly and Parsons (2000), most victims of sexual harassment engage in avoidance behavior, such as avoiding the aggressor or blaming themselves for the situation, while others confide in friends or family members.
Religion, faith, and spiritualism may also provide solace to some survivors. The victim could read or listen to music or read journals. Activists, organizations, churches or mosques, education, and media campaigns could also be used. According to West (2000) and the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2002), it is beneficial for the victim of sexual harassment to directly inform the harasser that the conduct is unacceptable and must cease.
The victim should use any available employer complaint mechanism or grievance system. The body also suggested that the best tool for eliminating sexual harassment in the workplace is prevention. When reporting on Ithaca College in the United States, Bonnie (2009) identified the role of college authorities in assisting students to avoid incidents of sexual harassment.
1.2 Statement Of the Problem
Despite the fact that the subject of sexual harassment elicits a spontaneous reaction from people whenever and wherever it is mentioned, there is no legislation in Nigeria that explicitly penalizes sexual harassment at work, including in academic settings. Sexual harassment has yet to be officially recognized as a violation of an individual's rights.
Organizations and institutions frequently regard it as a personal issue between two people (Kelly and Parsons 2000). Whereas the problem of sexual harassment poses more health risks to both victims and the entire community where it is perpetrated than could be imagined, as it is associated with many emotional, physical, intrapersonal, and societally challenging health issues.
Gender violence has steadily risen to the top of the global agenda in recent years. Sexual, physical, and psychological violence kills as many women aged 15 to 44 as cancer, and kills more than malaria and traffic accidents combined. However, the fact that so many women are abused, primarily by men they know, is something that most people prefer not to consider – and which legislation and policy are only slowly addressing (Mirsky, 2003).
Sexual violence and harassment are even further from people's minds in schools, universities, and higher education institutions. Students are supposed to be able to grow and learn in educational institutions. As a result, they are considered “safe.” However, this is not always the case. According to recent research studies conducted around the world, sexual violence in the education sector is an unresolved issue.
It includes everything from groping female students in the cafeteria line to rape. Peers are frequently involved, but teachers and other staff are also perpetrators (Kelly and Parsons, 2000). Both male and female students are affected, but there is a significant gender gap, with girls and young women experiencing much higher levels of violence, reflecting broader societal gender inequalities.
Sexual violence and harassment violates the human rights of women and girls and harms their physical and psychological health. It jeopardizes efforts to achieve internationally agreed-upon public health goals such as enabling adolescents to deal positively with their sexuality and reducing unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection.
It severely limits the ability of girls and young women to achieve their educational potential. As a result, it undermines education's transformative power in society. Female education has been shown to not only improve family health but also to be a significant driver of social and economic development.
Universities and other colleges are increasingly attempting to draw on the lessons of sexual violence research and activism, as well as the experience of sexual harassment policies in the workplace, which is a flawed procedure in and of itself, to develop guidelines for students and staff.
A variety of strategies are required, ranging from effective legislation and clear policy guidelines to age-appropriate educational initiatives integrated into life skills, sexuality, HIV/AIDS education, and other curricula. Issues for younger students must be addressed in a way that is consistent with their cognitive and emotional development.
As a result of the age range of students and the professional responsibilities – and power – held by teachers, addressing and preventing sexual violence in educational settings is complicated (Owoaje, and Olusola, 2009). Equality and rights can be discussed in the context of promoting respectful, loving relationships, as well as in conflict resolution and anti-bullying strategies (Mirsky, 2003).
1.3 The study's purpose
The overarching goal of this research was to investigate the perspectives of female students on sexual harassment at the University of Jos' village hostel. The specific objectives of this study were as follows:
Investigate student perceptions of sexual harassment.
Find out how common sexual harassment is among female students at the village hotel.
Identify the various types of sexual harassment that students commonly face.
examine the perceived risk factors for sexual harassment.
Investigate the effects of sexual harassment on students' academic and social lives.
1.4 Research concerns
What do female students at the village hostel think about sexual harassment?
How prevalent is sexual harassment in the study population?
What types of sexual harassment are commonly encountered in the workplace?
What are the perceived risk factors for encountering sexual harassment?
What effects does sexual harassment have on students' academic and social lives?
For this study, two null hypotheses were developed.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between sexual harassment perception and prevalence of sexual harassment.
Ho2: There is no statistically significant relationship between attending social parties and the incidence or experience of sexual harassment.
1.6 Importance Of The Research
In general, sexual harassment is regarded as an isolated and minor issue, despite the fact that many women are subjected to it in a variety of settings, including schools, universities, workplaces, and public places. This incident disrupts women's lives, and many of them suffer physical harm as a result of the harassment, but the issue remains a private one.
Sexual harassment behavior is passed down from generation to generation without regard for the incident by involved institutions. This research attempts to reveal the incidence and significance of the problem in order to raise public and national awareness of sexual harassment, which is the first step in establishing laws, regulations, and measures to protect women from sexual harassment.
1.7 Study Scope/Limitations
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence, consequences, and solutions to sexual harassment of female students at the University of Jos' village hostel. This research design is based on the principle of sexual harassment models and the patriarchy/male dominant approach.
1.8 Terms Definition
The following are the definitions of the terms used in this study:
Campus Sexual Harassment
On campus, sexual harassment is defined as unwanted sexual attention that (1) is offensive to students, including impeding students' ability to learn or participate in school activities, and (2) has a negative impact on the school environment (hostile environment or individual). Sexual harassment encompasses a wide range of behaviors, including verbal, nonverbal, physical, Quid Pro Quo Harassment, threat, and sexual coercion (Judith, 1997).
Differentiating Sexual Harassment from Friendly Behavior
According to Southern Illinois University research, the distinction between sexual harassment and friendly behavior is as follows: If the behavior is perceived as unwelcome, it is no longer considered friendly. Sexual harassment is most likely any behavior that makes another person feel uncomfortable or upset. In most cases, the fact that the person had no intent to harass is irrelevant. In most cases, the effect and characteristics of the behavior determine whether it is sexual harassment.
Harassment for the sake of harassment
Quid Pro Quo harassment is sexual bribery in which sexual favors or demands are made a condition of receiving benefits (e.g., a grade, promotion, job, recommendation, or appointment) or avoiding a penalty (e.g., being fired or receiving a negative evaluation).
1.9 The Study's Organization
The research on the prevalence of sexual harassment among undergraduate female students at Jos University is divided into five chapters:
Chapter One: Background of the study, problem statement, study objectives, variables and definitions, scope of the study, and significance of the study.
Chapter Two: A review of the literature explaining sexual harassment definitions based on sexual harassment theory, types of sexual harassment, and relevant studies. Subjects, materials, and data collection and analysis procedures are covered in Chapter Three.
Fourth chapter: findings report and data analysis
Conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter 5.
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FEMALE STUDENTS' PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF JOS.