EXPERT SYSTEM FOR COMPUTER SECURITY: DATA ENCRYPTION, DECRYPTION AND KEY HASH ALGORITHMS
Previously, security was as simple as locking the door or placing information in a closed filing cabinet or safe. Paper is no longer the only medium for housing information nowadays.
Files are kept in both computer databases and filing cabinets. Many of our secrets are stored on hard drives and floppy discs.
Security is a rather straightforward idea in the physical world. The house is secure if the locks on its doors and windows are sufficiently sturdy that a criminal cannot break in and take your possessions.
Security alarms may be installed to deter intruders from breaking through the locks. Similarly, if someone tries to withdraw money from your bank account fraudulently but the teller checks for identification and does not believe the thief's tale, your money is safe.
When you sign a contract with another individual, the signatures serve as the legal impetus for both sides to keep their word.
Security operates similarly in the digital realm. One idea is privacy, which means that no one can break into your files to access sensitive data (such as medical records) or steal money (by collecting credit card numbers or online brokerage account information, for example).
The lock on the door is privacy. Another term for data integrity is a technique that alerts us when something has been changed. That's the warning.
We can verify identities by employing the practise of authentication. This is equivalent to the identification required to withdraw funds from a bank account (or interact with an internet broker). Finally, non-repudiation is a legal force that compels people to keep their promise.
As the Internet becomes a more widespread element of daily life, the importance of e-security grows. Any organisation that engages in online activity must identify and manage the e-security threats that come with it.
Many of these risk-management measures rely on the effective application of cryptographic technology. Cryptography is the most significant security instrument.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Prior to the modern era, cryptography was solely concerned with message confidentiality (i.e., encryption) — the conversion of messages from a comprehensible to an incomprehensible form, and back again at the other end, rendering it unreadable by interceptors or eavesdroppers lacking secret knowledge (namely, the key required for decryption of that message).
Beyond confidentiality problems, the topic has developed in recent decades to encompass approaches for message integrity checking, sender/receiver identity authentication, digital signatures, interactive proofs, and secure computation, among other things.
Encryption is used to guarantee the secrecy of communications, such as those of spies, military leaders, and diplomats, but it has also been used for religious purposes.
Steganography (hiding even the presence of a message to keep it private) was also invented in ancient times. An early example, attributed to Herodotus, buried a message – a tattoo on a slave's shaved head – beneath the regrown hair.
To conceal information, more current instances of steganographyk include the use of invisible ink, microdots, and digital watermarks.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue is one of security. The password approach used in practically all commercial operating systems is most likely ineffective against a sophisticated or simple attacker. Those who seek to reduce unauthorised access to confidential files or data may next consider data encryption.
Computer operating systems give security in the form of a predefined super user account and password. A password may be assigned to the super user to control network activity, another to perform or access nightly backups, create accounts, and so on.
Logging on to a system as the super user may be the greatest option for a cracker to collect data or do damage. If the super user has not changed the preprogrammed passwords in the operating system, the network is exposed to attack. Most crackers are familiar with these passwords, and their initial effort to break into a network is to test them.
If an attacker is unable to log in as the super user, determining the user name and password of a regular user may be the next best option.
Most universities and colleges, as well as some commercial businesses, used to provide each student or employee an account with a user name and an initial password – the password being the user name.
Everyone was told to log in and update their passwords, but hackers and crackers frequently logged in before legal users.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
a. To comprehend and improve computer data security through data encryption.
a. To provide a method of protecting data in a system
c. To improve the data's integrity
d. To make it easier to use more sophisticated tools to protect a system against hacking, cracking, and bugging.
g. Create a platform to supplement physical security.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Data security is essential in today's world. To keep your secrets safe, you may need to install safeguards not supplied by your computer operating system. In some circumstances, the built-in safeguards may be sufficient.
If no one ever tries to break into or steal data from a certain computer, the data on that computer will be safe. Alternatively, if the intruder has not learned how to circumvent the simple default protections, they are sufficient.
However, many attackers have the knowledge and resources to breach numerous security mechanisms. If you do nothing and hope that no competent cracker targets your information, you might get lucky and nothing awful happens.
Data Encryption, any of several ways used to convert legible files into gibberish, is one of the most critical tools for securing your data from unauthorised access.
Even if an attacker obtains the file's contents, it is gibberish. It makes no difference whether or not the operating system safeguards were activated.
1.5 limitations OF THE STUDY
Technology constraint: The problem encountered here is searching for information about computer security through Data Encryption and Key Hash Algorithm.
Another issue is that because the secret key must be sent to the receiver of the encrypted data, it is difficult to securely send the key over the network to the receiver.
Time constraint: the time allotted for the submission of this project work was insufficient for the researcher to conduct significant investigation on this task.
Financial constraint: there was insufficient funding to complete this work thoroughly.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Computer security is described as the art of safeguarding computer systems and information from harm and unauthorised access.Cryptography is the most essential security method employed aside from human integrity.
which is used to conceal data from public view and to ensure the integrity and privacy of data transported across a network are not jeopardised.
Cryptography entails the processes of encryption and decryption.The scope of this study includes message security, message integrity, user authentication, and message key management.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SECURITY: The collection of access restrictions and permissions used to assess whether a server can grant a client's request for a service or resource.
PASSWORD: An identification that defines a computer's authorised users in order to gain access to the system.
SOFTWARE: A collection of computer programmes that work together to achieve a set of goals, often known as a job.
SYSTEM: An organised unit made up of two or more interconnected pieces that work together to achieve a certain goal.
ENCRYPTION: The process of transforming plaintext (ordinary information) into unintelligible nonsense (cypher text).
DECRYPTION: The process of converting unreadable cypher text to plain text.
ALOGRITM: A sequential approach to issue resolution.
CRYPTOGRAPHY: This is used to conceal data from public view and to ensure the integrity and privacy of any data sent across a network are not jeopardised.