ELECTRICITY'S IMPACT ON BUSINESS AND national DEVELOPMENT
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INTRODUCTION TO METHOD
3.0 IN CHAPTER THREE, METHOD
This chapter examines how the research data were collected, the study's research methodology, the data collection procedures, the target demographic, the sample size and sampling technique, and the data analysis approach. It concludes with a discussion of the techniques and constraints involved in acquiring this evidence.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
Due to the nature of the variables at hand, a descriptive research methodology was employed to create data necessary for quantitative analysis and to permit contemporaneous description of views, perceptions, and beliefs at each given point in time (White, 2000).
To fulfill the stated research aims of identifying the specific obstacles impeding the growth and expansion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Nsukka, quantitative research was utilized, which is frequently the most efficient and cost-effective research method (Gerhardt, 2004).
Numerous academics have examined the obstacles faced by Nigerian SMEs in their pursuit of expansion. In light of this, a case study approach was employed, focusing on small and medium-sized enterprises in Nsukka, Enugu state.
3.2 DATA GATHERING METHODS
This study's data were collected using both primary and secondary data sources.
3.2.1 PRIMARY DATA
Utilizing questionnaires as the primary data sources for this investigation Copies of the structured questionnaire were issued to operators and/or owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to collect primary data for addressing the research questions. The questionnaire contained three distinct components. Section A, which focused on respondent firms including: Age of the company
Form of possession Nature of the business
Average monthly revenue of the company
According to the definition provided in (Aryeetey et al., 1994) research work, these let us determine the sort of SME we were working with, whether they were Micro, Small, or Medium enterprises.
Section B of the questionnaire consisted of a number of questions designed to address the purpose of the study. These questions examined the impact of unpredictable power supply on the profitability of small and medium-sized enterprises.
The final section also examined how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) plan to overcome the excessive cost of production that renders them uncompetitive compared to their competitors who do not face erratic power supply, as well as what they are doing to overcome these obstacles in order to achieve growth and expansion in other regions.
3.2.2 SECONDARY DATA
The secondary data were gathered through a survey of relevant journals and published works. Newspaper sources and official Nigerian government policy documents pertinent to the topic were also studied. Extensive use of the online search engine www.google.com for up-to-date information on the issue.
The primary data comprised the bulk of this study since they enabled the collection of firsthand, pertinent responses.
3.3 SAMPLING FRAME AND TECHNIQUES
The sampling frame for the study includes all 2000 SME businesses in Nsukka. The sample size for the study was 80, which comprised both SMBs affected by the unreliable power supply and those who were unaffected due to their backup power source. This allowed researchers to track the impact of profitability on the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises. These SMEs were sent eighty (80) surveys, from which we received replies from
The response rate of 81 percent, which we deemed remarkable for this survey, was comprised of approximately 65 respondents.
The study employed a simple random sampling methodology, which is a probability sampling method that draws a fraction of a population such that each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen. In other words, in a random sample, all possible samples of fixed size have an equal chance of being selected. As a result, a simple random sample gives a sample that is highly representative of the community under study. A sample selected at random is impartial in that no member of the population has a greater chance of being chosen than any other. Simple random sampling enables generalizations (i.e., statistical inferences) from the sample to the population since the units picked for inclusion in the sample are selected using probabilistic procedures.
3.4 DATA COLLECTING DEVICE
This study uses a semi-structured questionnaire as its instrument. The researcher distributed copies of the questionnaire to the owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Nsukka in order to determine whether the continual availability of alternative energy sources could contribute to the profitability and expansion of SMEs.
There were both closed and open ended questions on the surveys. The open-ended questions allowed respondents to choose the level of specificity and length of their responses. It enabled respondents to provide a more appropriate presentation of their particular case and to convey a sense of choice flexibility. The closed-ended questions, on the other hand, were intended to limit the questionnaire to an acceptable length, so encouraging response and return validity in terms of responsiveness. It also reduces the possibility of misunderstanding, unlike open-ended queries. Lastly, it made tabulation and interpretation simpler for the researcher.
On the basis of validity and dependability, it is possible to determine which of the two questionnaires to employ. This research employs both open-ended and closed-ended questions.
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
In order for SMEs to grow and flourish, descriptive statistics was determined to be the optimal method of analysis, and was then utilized to identify the obstacles they encountered in this era of inconsistent power supply. It was facilitated by the tabulation of data derived from closed-ended survey questions to comprehend the issues stated by respondents.
Also to help answer the question of whether or not small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Nsukka Business District face difficulties in coping with the impact of unpredictable power supply on their businesses in order to achieve the objectives outlined in chapter one.
After settling on the target demographic, a list of SMEs was acquired from the National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) (NBSSI). After contacting some of these SMEs to seek their permission to participate in this study, the number of 80 SMEs was determined. The various SMEs that agreed to participate were subsequently contacted via telephone and given a brief overview of the objectives of the study. After obtaining the required number of participants for the study, the questionnaires were sent out. The respondents were then given one week to complete the surveys, as this allowed them sufficient time to provide accurate responses. The data acquired were then studied through the means of relative frequencies and graphs; tables and charts after the data were modified for completeness.
3.7 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENTS
Validity refers to the extent to which the instruments employed in the study measure the issues they are designed to measure (Amin, 2005). To verify the validity of the instruments, they were developed under the direct supervision of the supervisor. After designing the questions, they were pretested with five SMEs in Nsukka. This enabled the identification of ambiguous questions in the instruments and their realignment with the objectives.
Reliability is the “degree to which measuring tools give consistent scores when the same groups of individuals are measured again under the same conditions” (Amin, 2005). Using the Cronbach reliability test, Alpha values of 0.753 were obtained, showing that the questionnaire was adequate for analyzing the obstacles preventing SMEs from driving economic growth in the Nigerian economy and empowering them to do so.
ELECTRICITY'S IMPACT ON BUSINESS AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
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