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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROJECTS

EFFECTS OF VISUAL THERAPY ON EXPRESSIVE ART PERFORMANCE OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN

EFFECTS OF VISUAL THERAPY ON EXPRESSIVE ART OF AUTISTIC

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EFFECTS OF VISUAL THERAPY ON EXPRESSIVE ART PERFORMANCE OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN

CHAPITRE ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background Of The Study

Autism, according to Weintraub (2013), is defined as delays or abnormal functioning in one or more of the following categories before the age of three years: (1) social interaction, (2) communication, and (3) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests, and activities.

According to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders [5th edition],

Autism Spectrum Disorders or the Autistic Spectrum describe a group of neuro- disorders characterised by social deficits and communication difficulties, stereotyped or repetitive behaviours and interests, and, in some cases, cognitive delay.

The autism spectrum disorder includes the prior diagnoses of autism, Asperger's Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Autistic Disorder, Rett Syndrome, and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

Autism Spectrum Disorders affect around 1% of the world's population, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009.

With its frequency in the United States, it is regarded as the fastest rising developmental disability. Autism impairs information processing in the brain. It changes the way nerve cells and synapses connect and organise.

It is highly heritable, although the root cause incorporates both environmental and genetic aspects. However, the specifics of how this occurs are unknown.

Autism and its linked problems, according to Popova (1995), are among the least known mental health issues of our day. However,

one notable change that has occurred in recent years is a move from viewing the autistic mind as disabled to differently abled. Extraordinary people such as mathematical genius Daniel Tammet and architectural genius Gilles Trehin are examples of the distinction.

Some autistic children, according to Gillan (2006), may be mute or have extraordinary speech and language talents. Many children are too sensitive to sensory stimuli such as sound, sight, and touch. According to him, all youngsters have the ability to produce art and train important areas of the developing brain.

A few youngsters with autism have the ability to display well-developed visuospatial and visual memory skills when making art, according to Clara Clairborne Park's book ‘Exiting Nirvana” (2001).

They may generate intricate spontaneous perspective drawings of favourite subjects such as buildings or animals from various viewpoint points.

Children with autism frequently demonstrate repetitive behaviours, such as sketching many, identical pictures. This should be promoted because these children enjoy and find the activity engaging.

Gillian (2006) believes that a child with autism may express his or her wants through nonverbal communication, such as holding the art teacher's hand and requesting something. A teacher of art can encourage a vocal youngster to talk about his or her artistic process.

If an art teacher asks, “What colour is the crayon?” and the youngster responds correctly, he or she should be commended. If not, the teacher may say, ”Say red crayon,” followed by praise, to elicit a right response.

Furthermore, because this medium demands a low threshold for processing sensory information, many children may enjoy a drawing on paper using crayons or pencils.

Barnes (1937) defines Visual as creative genres that produce predominantly visual works, such as pottery, drawing, painting, sculpture, , printmaking, modern visual arts (photography, video, and film making), designs, and crafts.

According to Ifeagu (2002), Visual Arts is the branch of art that relies completely on the sense of sight for experience and appreciation.

Visual arts and non-visual arts are the two broad categories of arts. Fine arts and applied arts are two subcategories of visual arts. Drawing, Painting, and Sculpture are branches of Fine Art. Drawing would be employed as a therapeutic tool for the purposes of this study.

According to Banjoko (2000), drawing is the act of utilising lines to visually portray, define, and describe objects. It is also regarded as an essential means of enhancing pupils' observation skills.

The purpose of this research is to employ visual art, primarily drawings, to help kids with Autism Spectrum Disorders improve their communication and social skills.

They would be able to express themselves through drawings, which would invariably stimulate their reasoning and expression.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

According to studies, a huge majority of parents are unaware about Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a result, they find it difficult to accept their children's defects as requiring prompt intervention.

Furthermore, most teachers lack knowledge of the diseases, making it difficult for them to teach the diagnosed youngsters.

Most people would ignore their requirements, dismissing them as nonconformists or derailers. Some are even exposed to rejection and seclusion, rendering them useless to themselves, let alone their families or society at large.

Instead of being neglected, such children may be enrolled in special treatment schools where they could explore their deepest emotions, engage with other unique children without fear of rejection, and maximise their potential.

This study looked into the use of visual therapy to help diagnosed youngsters learn to be imaginative and expressive. It emphasises learning by action. This study's practical aspect would make learning meaningful, real, interesting, and thrilling.

1.3 Research Questions

In order to tackle the study's difficulty, the following questions were raised:

Is Visual Therapy effective in treating learning disabilities?

Is Visual Therapy effective in treating Disorder?

Is there a gender difference in the effectiveness of Visual Therapy?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Visual Therapy has no discernible effect on learning disorders.

Visual Therapy has no discernible effect on anxiety disorders.

There is no discernible gender difference in the effectiveness of Visual Therapy.

1.5 Importance of the Research

Knowledge of the condition's various causes, types, symptoms, treatments, and therapies would help parents, teachers, diagnosed children, and other interested parties properly identify and manage the disorder.

This would help people understand how to engage with children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders. Furthermore, attention would be focused on their strengths, and they would be given the opportunity to express their deepest ideas and feelings through drawings.

Visual Therapy would be utilised to treat youngsters who have been diagnosed with the illness. It is a vital therapy that will be used to teach children with Autism Spectrum Disorders how to learn and interact verbally and nonverbally.

Visual Therapy will assist children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in developing an excellent visual or possibly mental memory,

which will make learning genuine and reasonably lasting. They would be able to learn to understand and communicate their thoughts through the creation of drawings.

Diagnosed youngsters would be able to increase their self-expression, abilities, and communication skills through this therapy intervention.

They create art works on their own that depict their thoughts and feelings; they are self-expressive. The photographs explore and enhance their sense of creativity and feeling. As a result, they have a strong sense of self-awareness, productivity, and self-exploration.

Researchers interested in studying children with Autism Spectrum Disorders would also benefit from this study. Furthermore, the study would be a source of information,

or possibly knowledge, for all to have a basic understanding of the illness, which would aid in its right management.

1.6 Operational Definition OfTerminology

ASDs

It is an acronym for Autism Spectrum Disorders and is also known as Autistic Spectrum Disorder. It is a developmental condition in which children exhibit mental impairment, learning disabilities, behavioural issues, and an anxiety disorder.

ASDs are developmental impairments caused by brain abnormalities. It causes social and communication difficulties in those who have it.

The Nervous System

The Nervous System, according to the Advanced Learners' Dictionary, is the system of all the nerves in the body. It is the part of an animal's body that coordinates deliberate and involuntary behaviours and sends messages to other areas of the body.

Therapy

It simply means treating a physical ailment or illness. It is the attempted treatment of a health problem, usually after a diagnosis.

Comorbidity

This is the occurrence of one or more extra disorders or diseases that co-occur with a primary disease or condition, as well as the effect of such additional disorders.

It could alternatively be defined as the coexistence of two or more medical conditions, independent of their causative relationship.

Disorder

It is a disease that causes a section of the body to stop operating properly and accurately, resulting in a loss of order or organisation. It is also known as a functional anomaly or disturbance.

Diagnose

This comprises searching for, or determining the nature of, a disease, ailment, or illness based on its symptoms. It is also the identification of a phenomenon's nature and cause.

Disabilities in Learning

Despite having average intelligence, no emotional disorders, and no gross physical deformities, the failure to succeed at a level appropriate with age or ability when presented with reasonable learning chances.

People with learning disabilities have difficulty executing specific sorts of skills or completing projects if they are left to figure things out on their own or if they are taught in traditional ways. Individuals with learning disabilities may confront particular obstacles that last throughout their lives.

Artistic Expression

Ceramics, Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, design, Crafts, Photography, Video, Printmaking, Filmmaking, Architecture, Industrial Design, Graphic Design, Interior Design, Fashion Design, and Decorative Art are examples of Visual Arts.

It is a type of art in which the artist attempts to express a variety of complex feelings. This is then conveyed to the public via representational media.

Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, Textile Design, Graphics Design, Industrial Design, and Ceramics are examples of Visual Art, according to Quadri (2012).

Visual Art Therapy

Art therapy is defined by the British Association of Art Therapists as a type of psychotherapy that uses art media as its major medium of communication.

It is carried out by qualified and accredited art therapists who work with children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly.

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