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Motivation is derived from the Latin word “moreover,” which meaning “to move.” This concept can be enlarged by the formal definition provided by Bereson and Sterner (1964), namely motivation towards goals: Motivation implies “need, drive, and goal.”

The study of motivation may also be traced back to the Unisom’s of ancient Greek philosophers such as Robert E. Taneke over two and a half centuries ago. They used monism as a measure to express what true human drive is.

Hadorism is the belief that a person wants comfort and pleasure while avoiding suffering and pain. We frequently see this in managers’ assumptions that people do not want to work, that they are essentially lazy and milling if given the opportunity to avoid the difficulties of labour.

Sigmind Fred also attempted to explain men’s actions in terms of three components: sex aggression or self-preservation, death, and preservation. Evidence has shown that after the establishment of psychology as a scientific discipline,

experiment psychologists of the earlier period were primarily interested in the conscious experience produced in human subjects whose sense organs were exposed to a specific type of stimulus or engaged in a specific type of task.

They were presented with motivating issues, but they did not conduct an in-depth examination of these human issues.

After a while, men like Wastern, Thorndike, and Pallor beg for regulations that govern behaviour. They started with the most basic form, which could almost easily be investigated in animals.

They did not perceive the necessity to address the organism’s motivating circumstances, instead analysing behaviour in terms of “refluxed” or stimulus response, which relates granular reaction to event in the internal environment.

Fraud and modogally, having become involved in abnormal psychology, were confronted with some of the dramatic extremes reached by behaviour outside the laboratory and felt compelled to denovice the Varity of attempting to explain animals or human actions without reference to “agree” instruct “purpose” goal” etc.

Early behaviourism, monizi and major, reported in 1949, that reticular formation of the brain germ that general the electroeven phalagraphic patterns (graphic transaction of information derived from the brain), indicating an alert brain, when part of the proceeds of other line of research to the psychological concept of arousal level” (which is an older concept of drive) in an indication of the fact that motivation has had a long history.

Many units and social scientists have contributed to motivating writings, including George Elton Myor (1888-1949), Frederick Wimslow Taylor (1856-1925), Henry Fayol (1841-1925), Donglas Murray Mcgregor 1906-1964, Frederick Hezberge, and a host of others.


The former Imo Anambra state government and the African Continental Bank Limited jointly owned the Universal Insurance Company Limited. Its history stretches back to the era shortly following Nigeria’s formal independence in 1960, when expansion was limited.

This period reveals a reluctance to invest in long-term tenures, as projects with higher returns were generally preferred. As a result, there was a pressing need to raise the level of capital available locally for the initial development of eastern Nigeria in order to conceive the ideas for the establishment of an indigenous insurance company.

Following a feasibility assessment, the late Mr. M. T. Okpara, the premier of then-Eastern Nigeria, requested that an insurance business be established by the indigenous government. Thus, the universal insurance firm was founded in 1960, with a name that reflected the breadth of vision and driving power that motivated its founders.

This goal became a reality on March 22, 1961, when the company opened its doors for business in pursuit of the original purposes and objectives that brought it into being.

In the beginning, there were only eight foundation staff in a single room office. In its “39” years of existence, the company has made higher than average progress. Today, the company holds an excellent place in the Nigerian insurance industry’s hierarchy, employing a sizable staff of no more than “500.”

True to the founding fathers’ ambition, the company has maintained an exceptional record of profit margins since 1965, when it announced its first profit.

Due to the effect of the Nigeria civil war, which caused the company to record losses between 1966 and 1977, the company declared a profit of N31,09200 in 1977 and 1978, respectively. The company’s growth was accelerated by the introduction of the universal

“budget system” in 1974 as a management tool by which branches are given targets at the start of each year and to ensure the achievement of the set targets. The corporation raised its income from both life and non-life business by using this strategy.

In 1982, 1983, 1984, and 1985, the company earned N582,169, N376, 861, N286,813 and N418 581, respectively.

The corporation has also borne a fair share of the austerity measures, which have resulted in a decrease in income and an increase in claims. The organisation has maintained its usefulness.

Before the civil war, the corporation had branches in a few places around the country, including Port Harcourt, Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, and Onitsha.Aba, Umuahai, Orlu, Okigwe, Benin, Ikort-Epkere, and Oya are among the states represented. There was only one agreement in which the corporation established a representative office in London to serve the interests of Nigerians living there.

Following the civil war, a market survey found that not all of the previous branch offices would be viable if reopened in light of the emergence of new states in 1967. Reopening new ones was thus done with caution, and some old ones were left out entirely. Today, there are numerous branch offices located throughout the country.


Individuals in any organisation have diverse desires and goals; no two people are the same.

Employees in an organisation such as the Universal Insurance Company LimitedEnugu have sworn to destroy and work against the company’s objectives; they arrive to work every morning and do not want to be effectively engaged. Some employees would like to see their working hours cut and their pay raised.

Other employees, on the other hand, would attempt to raise the company’s profile by working in their office until their day’s work was accomplished. All of these variances in employee attitudes offer difficulties for management.

The researcher would try to determine how these specific employees would react or respond if they were appropriately and positively adjusted with the appropriate incentives.

What incentives are used by the universal insurance business limitedEnuguto to inspire their salespeople, and how well have these incentives worked in terms of enhanced productivity?


Organisational managers are well aware of the reality that no two people are alike.” Some salespeople consistently execute at a high level and require little or no control, yet they appear to enjoy or be content with their jobs.

Other salespeople perform poorly, necessitating continual attention and supervision, and are frequently absent from work. The reasons for these performance disparities persist and are extremely complicated. These factors include the nature of the job, the manager’s attitude, the qualities of the employees, the nature of the setting, and so on.

Can motivation overcome this problem and contribute to improved employee productivity and job satisfaction?

This research would look into the motivational incentives used by the unknown insurance business limitedEnugu, as well as how these motivational incentives effect productivity in the company.

The outcomes of this study will serve to highlight organisational difficulties connected to motivation as well as potential solutions to improve motivation in the workplace.


I developed the following hypotheses to act as an effective guide for this research project.


Null hypothesis:

To inspire her salespeople, the universal insurance business limitedEnugu employs incentives.

Ho: The incentives utilised by Enuguto’s universal insurance company to inspire her salespeople are ineffective.

Hi: The worldwide corporation Enuguto uses great incentives to motivate her salespeople.


The necessary factors of production are present in an organisation such as the universal insurance companyEnugu, but the firm does not appear to be operating at full capacity. The reason for this could be that one of the production elements is not being completely utilised, in which case production would not be opinion.


The universal insurance company limited, Enugu, is the project’s focal point. The investigation will be limited to the company’s headquarters, which is located in Enugu; due to time constraints, it will not be feasible to extend this study to the company’s branches.

I will investigate the types of incentives provided by the organisation to salespeople, as well as the consequences of such incentives on productivity.


While conducting this study, I experienced some constraints as the researcher. One of the obstacles is a lack of time. As a first-year student, I must divide my limited time between this project and my other academic obligations.

A thorough study project carries a significant financial load that a student of my statue cannot bear. As a result, this inquiry had to be limited to the offices of the universal insurance firm Enugu.

I also ran into some issues while gathering data for my project. I had to summon corporate officials numerous times before I could see them- the obvious outcome being that conclusions drawn from available information may be highly vulnerable and defective.


Motivation is an inner focus that drives one to perform in a certain way.
b. Incentives: these are the stimuli that cause people to act in certain ways. Incentives create an internal feeling or drive.

c. Reflexes: These are quick reactions to a specific event.

d. Behaviourism: the belief that all human behaviour can be described by stimulus and reaction.

e. Goals: Also known as objectives, this is the final goal that an organisation strives to achieve. It might be informed about profit efficiency, excellent service, and so on.

f. Organisation: It is the act of organising a group of people, a firm, a school, etc. It is also the structure of beneficial relationships that exist in a group.

g. Management: the act of getting things done through the help of others.

h. Employee: someone who is hired to work for a company.

i. Population: this is the portion of the universe to which the research has access and is restricted.

A researcher is someone who performs research.

k. Respondent: this term refers to all people who responded to the researcher’s questionnaire and interview.

Managers are people who take on the responsibility and functions of managing at any level in any type of business.

Theory: A systematic arrangement of relevant principles and concepts that serves as the foundation for substantial knowledge.
Salesmen: Employees of an organisation who work in the sales and distribution of goods and services.

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