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Chapter one


1.1 Background of the Study

The phrase motivation comes from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. Terence Mitchell (1997) defines motivation as “those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed” in this context.

Managers must comprehend these psychological processes if they are to effectively direct personnel towards organisational goals. Let’s look at the historical roots of motivational thoughts.

Motivation is founded on the assumption that every human experience has both a cause and an effect. According to one authoritative source, there are seven essential factors. These are:

(i) the drive to satisfy bodily demands;

(ii) the urge to succeed and achieve;

(iii) the urge to avoid failure and disappointment;

(iv) the urge for recognition and approval;

(v) the urge for security;

(vi) the desire to try something new and different; and

(vii) the sex urge. The manager must be aware of these motivational forces and use that information to carry out his responsibilities.

The concept of motivation is based on the premise that motivation manifests itself as a change in behaviour as a result of experience. The manager must understand the numerous aspects of human conduct that form the basis of motivation.

Advanced psychologists identify seven different dimensions of motivation. These are:

(i) situation

(ii) personal qualities

(iii) aims

(iv) interpretation

(v) action

(vi) consequences and

(vii) response to thwarting.

Individuals use the seven aspects to achieve their goals. Previous experience has prepared the individual in specific ways to be individually equipped for new encounters.

When new events are offered, the individual will perceive them and respond accordingly depending on the outcomes he has had in comparable situations in the past.

Previous consequences in similar situations will bring personal goals closer to reality, increasing personal readiness to embrace the new scenario. Favourable outcomes are not always achieved, and when they are, the individual’s efforts are said to be thwarted due to a lack of goal accomplishment.

The management must concentrate on educating staff to adopt and implement new procedures in such a way that none of them feel frustrated. He must also be realistic enough to recognise that this ideal is not always achievable and should consider strategies to discourage staff from engaging in non-adaptive behaviour.

Aside from motivation and organisational performance, the organisation must be able to successfully evaluate the individuals who do the work being reviewed. The types of persons who will be required in the altered operation must be considered.

For both the old and new operations, an extensive job analysis with appropriate job descriptions is required. He must also evaluate the boundaries imposed by personal restriction based on the analysis. It is impossible to operate effectively unless everyone possesses the majority of the necessary skills.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Every research aims to provide a solution to an identified problem; the following issues are associated with employee motivation and organisational performance.

Supervision. To reduce demotivation in this area, you must first make good decisions when appointing people to supervisory positions. Be aware that good employees may not often make excellent managers. The position of supervisor is incredibly challenging. It necessitates leadership abilities and the capacity to treat all employees fairly.

Salary. The classic saying “you get what you pay for” rings especially true when it comes to employees. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do expect to be paid appropriately.

Interpersonal relationships. Remember that part of the motivation for working is the social contact it provides, therefore provide staff enough time to socialise (e.g., during lunch, breaks, and between customers).

This will help students establish a sense of community and collaboration. At the same time, you should crack down on rudeness, inappropriate behaviour, and insulting remarks. If a person continues to be disruptive, take control of the situation, possibly by dismissing him or her from the practice.

1.3 Study Objectives

The study’s aims are as follows:

a. Identify the characteristics that drive employees of Ethiopian Airlines.

b. Determine the impact of these factors on organisational performance.

c. Identify the elements that demotivate Ethiopian Airlines personnel.

d. Identify other elements that influence Ethiopian airlines’ organisational performance.

1.4. Research questions

During the course of the research, the following questions are likely to require sufficient attention:

a. What motivates employees of Ethiopian Airlines?

b. What factors influence the performance of Ethiopian airlines?

b. How can we identify the things that demotivate Ethiopian Airlines employees?

d. How do you identify other elements that influence organisational effectiveness at Ethiopian Airlines?

1.5. Statement of the Hypothesis

This study will look into the influence of employee motivation on organisational performance at Ethiopian airlines. The study was conducted in a critical approach to determine the professional consequences of employee motivation on organisational performance.

The following hypotheses were tested.

HO: Our incentives encourage us to accomplish our tasks efficiently.

H1: Our incentives don’t motivate us to complete our duties efficiently.

HO: Leadership in Ethiopian airlines improves profitability.

H1: Leadership in Ethiopian airlines does not increase profitability.

HO: Promotion in Ethiopian airlines improves reduced labour turnover.

H1: Promotion in Ethiopian airlines does not increase low labour turnover.

HO: Performance recognition in Ethiopian airlines improves efficiency.

H1: Ethiopian airlines’ performance recognition does not lead to increased efficiency.

1.6 Definition of Terms and Concepts.

The concepts listed below are defined as they appear in this study:

(a) Motivation: Refers to the psychological processes that elicit and direct goal-directed conduct.

(b) Service: A system that provides what the public requires, organised by the government or a private organisation or firm.

(c) Efficiency: This refers to how well an organisation generates a certain product while using as few resources as possible.

(d) Effectiveness: This refers to obtaining results.

(e) Productivity: This is the ratio of output to input, whether labour or other resources.

(f) Quality: (i) Meeting specified criteria and expectations, such as time, quality specifications, finances, defect rates, functions, and safety guarantees.

(ii) Meeting emotional needs and desires, such as attitudes, commitments, behaviour, attention, loyalty, credibility, and consistency.

(g) Environment: The conditions that influence the behaviour and development of an organism.

(h) Finance: This refers to the funds utilised to operate a firm, activity, or initiative.

(i) Mechanism: This refers to a system or approach for accomplishing a specific goal or aims.

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