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Chapter one


Background of the study.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Nigeria as an independent nation was distinguished by strong governance and the notion of sustainable management of human and material resources, which contributed to experience.

Situation of improved social and economic conditions, which have been attributed to the low cost of energy sources such as petroleum and electricity.

However, in the energy 80’s and aptill date the services of government that has piloted the affairs of this great nation (Nigeria), even those that has failed to realise that energy products such as petroleum and electricity products are the mainstay of the entire citizenry of the country

this is evident in the level of mal-administration that has been recorded in the energy sector in recent times, thereby making the cost of these products to be above the reach of the and us.

Nigeria is Africa’s largest oil producer and the world’s eighth largest; the petroleum sector is the primary source of revenue for the Nigerian economy. The Niger Delta region covers more than twenty-eight thousand square kilometres and includes meandering waterways.

A substantial portion of the area consists of salt water. Swamp areas of fresh water further inland have limited agricultural prospects; the region’s name (Niger Delta) is derived from its location at the mouth of the River Niger, which can be traced back to the early 15th century.

The region’s people are made up of the Ijaws (the area’s largest ethnic group), Itsekiri, Urohobos, Efiks, Ibibios, and other smaller ethnic groups. Prior to the establishment of the Nigerian state, the Niger Delta’s economic activity consisted primarily of exporting salt and fish to its hinterlands.

During the zenith of the slave trade in the 18th century, the region was West Africa’s largest slave exporting territory, which was aided by its proximity to the sea. Slave traders, on the other hand, redirected the palm oil trade in the nineteenth century, when the slave trade waned.

Nigeria was founded during the colonial era, and the Niger Delta is located in the country’s south-east. As of 1975, three states were included in the region: Rivers, Bendel, and Cross River, with two Igbo states, Anambra and Imo, as the hinterland.

Following the creation of more states and a redefinition of the areas to be included in the Niger Delta states were Abia, AkwaIbom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers state.

The critical issue of oil pipeline vandalism and its effects on socioeconomic development in Nigerian society. In 1956, Nigeria discovered a significant crude oil reserve in the Niger Delta. In 1958, Shell D’Arcy discovered crude oil in twelve sites in the region, with Oloibiri, Afam, and Bonu showing the most promise.

Oloibiri began oil production in early 1958 at 3,000 barrels per day (Ekpu 2009). Since then, massive reserves of crude petroleum oil have been discovered both onshore and offshore in numerous sections of the Niger Delta region, as well as further eastward towards the Ohaji and Egbema axis.

By 1997, Nigeria had a proven oil reserve of 13.5 billion barrels. However, the region’s recoverable oil was projected to be 22.5 billion barrels from 164 blocks (Inyang, 2004).

In 2015, however, Nigeria was ranked as the world’s tenth largest oil producer, with proved oil reserves of approximately 36 billion barrels and gas reserves of approximately 185 trillion cubic feet (TCF), among other things (Johnson, 2015).

It should be mentioned that crude petroleum oil was discovered further inland along the Anambra River plain, and production has begun under Orient Petroleum.

This has elevated Anambra state to the coveted list of oil-producing states in the country. In February 2016, Nigeria was said to have established a strategy to keep crude oil production at 2.2 million barrels per day. The 2016 Federal budget was believed to have been based on this level of crude oil production.

Dr. IbeKachikwu, Minister of State for Petroleum Resources and Group Managing Director of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), confirmed that the country’s oil production will reach 2.2 million barrels per day in February 2016.

He was also said to have stated that the government would continue to strive to boost crude oil output in order to meet domestic demand rather than sell it on the foreign market.

He allegedly stated that Nigeria has a significant local demand for refined petroleum products, and so the need for the four domestic refineries was at least 500, 000 barrels of crude oil per day (Okoromadu, 2016).

Furthermore, the public have been accustomed to the nasty tendencies, and given the plenty that the country enjoys in this area, they have decided to resort to vandalism as a solution to their energy problems. Our primary emphasis for this research is Kwara state.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The current research study addresses the following issues. First, there are issues with bad governments or administrations that are unable to manage the energy sector effectively. Second, there are concerns with vandals who are unaware of the risks associated with vandalism.

Third, there are issues with illicitly high energy product prices. Furthermore, the research work illustrates the challenges of testable economy due to vandalism. Finally, there is the issue of reduced GDP, which is caused by a bigger percentage of national income being lost owing to vandalism.


The study’s aims are:

To determine the dangers involved with vandalism.

Determine the relationship between vandalism and a nation’s socioeconomic progress.

To find out how much money is lost annually due to vandalism.

Research Hypotheses

The researcher plans to examine the following under the given hypotheses:

Hypothesis #1:

Ho: There is no danger involved with vandalism.

Hello: There are dangers linked with vandalism.

Hypothesis #2:

Ho: There is no association between vandalism and a nation’s socioeconomic progress.

Ho, there is a relationship between vandalism and the socioeconomic progress of a nation.

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