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POLITICAL SCIENCE

EFFECT OF POLITICAL CORRUPTION ON THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

EFFECT OF CORRUPTION ON THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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EFFECT OF POLITICAL CORRUPTION ON THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

ABSTRACT

The primary goal of this research was to investigate political corruption and its consequences in Nigerian government and politics. The study focused on the political levy of Anambra inhabitants as a case study. This study aims to provide a full understanding of the location and its impact. The work was broken into five chapters.

The first chapter includes a summary of difficulties, the significance of the study, the objective and investigation of the study, and other topics. Chapter two discusses the origins of corruption and poverty in , Nigeria's political godfathers, the ills of corruption, and the effects of corruption in Nigeria,

which propelled the federation to new heights between 1999 and 2010, particularly in Anambra state. In the same chapter two, we have another notion, the madness of the second tenure system in Nigerian government, as one of the key factors.

Chapter five contains recommendations and ideas based on the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2010 on the political lives of Nigerian citizens.
Chapter one

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the Study

Nigeria and political corruption – Political corruption has long existed in Nigeria.

Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of officials misusing resources, embezzling funds, and looting government property for personal enrichment.

“The rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major events seen to have led to a litany of ignorale corrupt practices in the country over the years, the country has seen its wealth wither with little to show in the living conditions of the

According to this viewpoint, a Nigerian political leader, Obafemi Awolowo, raised an important issue when he stated, “Since independence, of few holding the cow for the strongest and most cunning to milk,” under such circumstances everyone rushes over everybody to do good at the expense of others.

Typically, apologists for African nations' failings blame colonists for widespread corruption. According to this viewpoint, the nations' colonial histories may have limited their ability to exert influence on an ethnic revolt throughout the colonial period.

The majority of Nigerians were impoverished and uneducated. The trapping of flash automobiles and houses, as well as the colonialists' success, have influenced many poor people to consider colonists as symbols of success and to mimic them in various political ways.

Involvement in the agenda of colonial control may also limit idealism in the early stages of a nation's growth. During the colonial period, it was popular to believe that the colonists' property (cars, houses, farms, and so on) was not ours.

Thus, destruction and looting of public property were not regarded as crimes against society.

This viewpoint is what has led to their contempt for public property, a lack of public trust, and concern for public goods as communal national property.

According to Sen (1999, p. 225), corruption is “an attempt to secure wealth or power through illegal means, private gain at public expense, or a misuse of public power for private benefit”.

As a result, electoral corruption includes the purchase of votes with money, promises of offices or special favours, coercion, intimidation, and interference with the freedom of election (Nigeria is a good example, where votes are bought, people are killed or maimed in the name of election, losers end up as winners, and voters show up in areas where votes were not cast).

Political corruption can manifest itself in a variety of ways, including electoral corruption, bribery, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, nepotism, godfatherism, favouritism, the madness of the second tenure system, and more.

Political corruption is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria that threatens economic, social, cultural, and political stability.

It began during the colonial era among the colonists but has risen to a culmination after the establishment of modern public administration in the country.

There have been cases of official misuse of resources for personal enrichment. Nigeria's political godfathers, which came into existence as a result of the inability of some aspirants of political officers to afford or sources their fund to run the election,

there are those who are the powerful wealthy men who sponsor the political aspirants in Nigeria palace known as political godfathers, in which their political fathering activities have culminated.

What is presently known as Anambra state was established in 1991 under the leadership of Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida. Anambra is one of the largest and most dominant southeast states, with twenty-one local councils.

Since 19991, the violence, corruption, and godfatherrism” occurring elsewhere in Nigeria have run rampant in Anambra. Since then, Anambra has been proved by some political to remain the eyes of the most political corrupt state in Nigeria,

in which a wealthy member of Chris Uba is an iconic example of the godfathers phenomenon in Nigeria, as a proof in the 2003 Anambra gubernatorial election,

when PDP candidate Dr. Chris Nwabueze Ngige was sponsored and financed to rig Dr. Christ Nwabueze Ngige and his godfather Christ Uba's unattainable agreement resulted in a succession of political traumas, electoral irregularities, riggings, thurgry, kidnapping, death, vandalism, false impeachment, and other incidents.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Nigeria as a nation is fac

I lack political education.

ii Godfatherism Concept

iii Election irregularities

iv Lack of party ideology.

v Political polarisations, upheavals, quagmires, traumas, and controversy.

vii Ethnocentrism, nepotism, sectionalism, and tribalism among politicians.

vii Madness of the second tenure notion

viii A lack of patriotism among the leaders

ix Marginalisation.

x High level of insecurity.

xi Poverty reaches a pinnacle, heralding a high level of thuggery and violence.

viii Centralization of power at the state level: A case study of Anambra.

According to all indications, the obstacles are daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly, and may be completed in the near future, unless a panel committee is formed to address the matter.

However, they must educate and internalise the public to a greater level through the use of electronic voting systems in order to achieve transparency, fairness, equity, good conscience, and free and fair elections.

A question suddenly occurred to mind: how has huge thurgry been decreased in the Anambra state election? The answer is that there should be appropriate work opportunities to involve youths in one or more jobs, hence limiting their state of poverty as an offshoot of thurgry.

Based on these, the researcher must vividly analyse the factors that contribute to political corruption and its consequences in Anambra state.

1.2 The purpose of the study

The goal of this study is to investigate and provide in-depth analysis of political stability in Nigerian governments and polities.

i. Provide proper political education to Anambra youth and other politicians.

Ii. To offer an appropriate atmosphere to improve political stability.

iii To put an end to the lukewarm concept of godfatherism in politics.

iv To create job possibilities for Nigerian and Anambra youths in order to reduce poverty, which has resulted from widespread thuggery and kidnapping during the election.

v To properly blame and warn fraudulent INEC personnel for their electoral fraud and regulations, which have resulted in political pain and a quagmire in Anambra State.

vi To require the state government to delegate power to the local government level in order to increase people engagement and political awareness.

vii To promote political stability, which may lead to free and fair elections in Anambra state.

viii Encourage the use of electronic voting systems in Anambra state for more effective and efficient politics, as well as free and fair elections.

Ix Ensure mass participation in political activities.

x Ensure enough party ideology in Nigeria's administration and politics.

Furthermore, the study aims to explain why Anambra state elections have never been free and fair.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.

During the course of this , the researcher posed the following questions.

How much does political corruption effect people's political, social, and economic lives in Anambra state?

ii. How could political leaders, supporters, and INEC officials be baptised (improved) so that

Ensure the theoretical framework.

There are several ways to study any phenomenon in any scholarly inquiry in order to ensure a systematic and objective analysis. For the purposes of this discourse, I don't prehendal theory of democracy, which works on the assumption that power is central to politics.

The starting point of Richard Joseph Prehendal theory is that Nigerian political life is entirely characterised and dominated by corruption Omo O. (1993, p. 16), clietlism and prehendalism are essential notions in prehenda analysis.

He sees chetelism as patron diet ties, and believes that it is the very channel via which one enters the dominant , as well as a practice that is then viewed as crucial to the continuous enjoyment of that class's privileges. He defines prehendalism as the acquisition of a state job through tests or as a prize for loyal service to a lord or a rule.

A critical analysis of post-independence African states reveals that being ruler, whether at the federal level. The state or local government is in charge of the treasury and uses the wealth that rightfully belongs to the people to legitimately enrich party faithful investors in elections, friends, clients, and godfather allies in order to maintain a corrupt lifestyle.

From the foregoing, can a framework be developed to study Africa and Nigerian affairs in terms of corruption and growth with greater equity, transparency, and free and fair elections?

iii How does an electronic voting system affect, culminate, or herald a free and fair election in Aambra State?

iv How has godfatherism contributed to the current high level of political brouhaha, trauma, and upheaval in Anambra State?

v How does vote buying, vote gathering, where and when elections were not held, and votes were not cast all contribute to electoral malpractices in Anambra state.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant in the need to promote political stability in Nigeria, with a special emphasis on Anambra state, as stated below.

i With the goal of improving political equality among Anambrarians.

ii With the goal of eliminating high levels of political illiteracy among Anambra youths through political education.

iii This research will also be useful in identifying solutions to pervasive political thuggery, mass kidnapping, frequent abductions, and killings.

iv It would also help to reduce the high degree of insecurity in Anambra State.

This report would also be important in outlawing any form of godfatherism in Anambra state.

vi This study will also have a substantial impact on political stability, resulting in free and fair elections that elect trustworthy politicians.

vii This study would be essential in allowing the state government to delegate political, financial, and administrative authority to local governments in Anambra State.

viii This study would also be useful in teaching Nigerian politicians about party ideology as opposed to their formal party without an ideology structure.

viii It will have a big impact in leaving little or no change for political irregularities, electoral fraud, and other political tragedies in Nigeria, notably Anambra state.

In this report, the researcher will also discuss the eradication of political arson, kidnapping, and other political upheavals, as well as how Anambra and its neighbouring states can benefit from refined effective and efficient political administration in terms of economic, political, social, and cultural harmony and stability.

1.5 Scope of the Study

In studying political corruption in Nigerian government and politics, it is necessary to confine this to a democratic dispensation in order to achieve transparency, equity, justice, good conscience, and free and fair elections to the extent possible within the constraints of time and the study.

As a result, Anambra state. The government was utilised as a case study.

1.6 Limitations of the Study

Research was not problem-free.

In this work, the researcher was presented with some key issues that hampered the completion of the task. The dissemination of surveys was one of the most prominent issues. The researcher used to move from one local government to another,

as well as from one staff member to another, in Anambra state's twenty-one (21) local governments. In order to find a solution to the problem, the researcher conducts regular visits to various (Hpm) of the local governments.

More so. Adequate explanations were provided to explain the need for questionnaires. The researcher spends more time going from one staff member to another in numerous offices throughout the state, which is time that they should be using for something else.

Also, money for transportation to meet them, i.e. the staff, in their various houses, and sometimes, when you get there, they will not answer to you, i.e. the staff will simply tell you that they do not have time to speak anything with you about it right now.

1.7 Definition of Terms

i. Corruption, in layman's terms, is defined as a perversion or transformation from good to bad. Thus, corrupt behaviour comprises breaking established rules for personal advantage and profit (Sen 1999, p. 275).

Corruption is also an attempt to achieve riches or influence through illicit means for private gain at public expense, or the misuse of public power for private benefit.

ii Godfathers in Nigeria: The word godfathers (alkla money bag, alkla loan-shacks) refers to extremely wealthy men (no known women yet) who fund elections.

Note: When godfathers finance elections, they typically cover the government treasury and control the government in order to return their investment.

The Madness of Second Tenure: This simply refers to the sit-tight system used in Nigerian administration in which governors, chairpersons, and presidents sit on government seats and lie or agitate for a second tenure in order to be re-elected.

iv Political polarisation: this simply implies the division of a house (party) into separate groups of people with different opinions or ideas as a result of politics, i.e. criticism among individuals in society, such as in Anambra politics.

v Political brouhaha and upheavals: this is a superfluous estimate, criticism, or action, particularly in news reports to express disapproval.

vi Electoral corruption: This includes the purchase of votes using money, promises of office or special benefits, coercion, intimidation, and interference with the right to vote.

vii Fraud: It involves some type of deceit, swindle, and detection of counterfeiting, acketing, smuggling, and forging (Ibid Pu).

Viii Embezzlement is the misappropriation of public resources by public officials. It occurs when a state official steals from the public institution where he or she is employed.

ix Extortion: The extraction of money and other resources through compulsion, violence, or threats of force. (Bafart et al. 1997, p. 11).

x Favouritism: This is a form of power abuse that implies a highly biassed distribution of state resources.

However, it is regarded as a normal human productivity to prioritise friends, family, and anyone close and trustworthy.

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