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Banking operation is very important in the affairs of any economy the fundamental function of commercial bank in economy system in the transfer of funds from the savings surplus unit to the borrowing deficit units. The surplus units provide the fund needed to the deficit units for investment purposes. This is essential fro economic growth of any country. The commercial banks are the intermediaries between the demand side and supply side. 

Banks is the process of performing their code of financial intermediaries between surplus units and deficits create deposit. When a bank gives out loan to a customer, it debits the loan account and credit the customer account with the amount involved. The credit to the customer account which has become a new deposit is available the bank for further lending to other borrowers.

The ability of a commercial banks to grant loan depends on the level of deposit it has generated and the legal reserve requirement imposed by the central bank.

A bank earns a return for performance of the role of mobilization loans and advances are described as the must important as well as the bad debt. Effect of bad debts on the profitability of banking institution. Most profitable asset of commercial banks. One of the main objectives of commercial banks to maximized profit but this objective can be affected by increasing the trend of provision for bad and doubtful debts.

If there is doubt concerning the recovering of the account, it is classified doubtful and when several efforts general forward are in vain, it is declared a bad account, due to the numerous reasons which may include the likely death of a borrower, possible illegal diversion of funds, poor state of the economy not all the loan granted by banks to customer are repaid when due, such problems on loans and advances are classified as bad and doubtful.

This has been two major concerns to both management and shareholders. Bad debt are losses to banks and therefore are capable of reducing the returns that the shareholders and contributions of the banks to economic and social development of the country.


Through the resolution to create a debt recovery department out of the ‘Head’ Office Advance Department was finally taken on 31st December 1984 but it practically implemented on 31st January, 1985.

This department was born out of a serious concern on the stock of bad debt in the banking company’s total portfolio posed to the apex management members, i.e. Board of Directors. The total bad debt on at 31st December, 1984 was #311,285,424 which represent 19.9997% or 20% of the total loan and advances of #1556,412000 and about 8.656% of the net company asset beared source debt recovery department head office of UBN Lagos.

The department was said in still under the responsibility to re-appraise each of its debtors on the basis of the trend of economic situation and revalue their security with the view to determine the debtors work with the outstanding debt balance in the company’s books.

The department in the apex arbiter to determine the amount to be paid in full and final settlement of debt by any debtors after adequate consideration is respect of interest concession, security revaluation and realization position of the debtor the percentage of the company profit and interest in terms of image must be given though after re-appraisal of the company’s credit committee which in terms report to the Board of Director.  


The bank is a business enterprise aim at maximization of profit payment of handsome dividends to the shareholder and contributing it’s quota to the economic growth of the nation. The aim objectives of this research topic is to detail the bad debt activities through the strategies they are using in order to minimize the rapid growth of debt to becomes bad. Effort would be made to draw out the impact of bad debt on the entire banking industry in eluding the staff. Customers and marketing activities, thereby constituting a major constraints on the achievement on their desire objectives.

The project is also touch the effect of prudential guidelines on bad debt and categorization of bad study the process of credit appraisal identify the major causes of bad and doubtful debts analyze their effects and offer suggestions in the minisation and effect management of bad debts in Union Banks.


The study investigated into the management of debts in Union Bank. it has been discovered that several factors affect the decision of the bank management in the factors considered are the time factor, the nature of the business of the company involved and its management team and the type of industry into which the company falls.

A study concerned itself with the examinations of low factors like Non-product financial management, natural disasters, prevailing economic difficulties which has course many countries to operate below capacity and all other have affected the management of bad debt.


Hypothesis is defined as an suggestion put forward s a starting point for reasoning or explanation based on certain knowledge. Hypothesis testing can be described as a process of determining the validity of a formulated hypothesis. This can be done through the testing of a negative hypothesis i.e. Ho.  

There are two types of hypothesis

a.             Null Hypothesis (Ho)                               Negative

b.             Alternative Hypothesis (Hi)     Positive   

Hypothesis Formulation

1.             Hi:           Loan & facilities granted yield profits to the bank

                Ho:          Loan faculties granted does not yield profits to the bank.

2.             Hi:           Banks loans and advances has significant impact on Nigeria economy.

                Ho:          Banks loans an advances has no significant impact on Nigeria economy.

3.             Hi:           Credit administration and management will have significant effect in minimizing    

bad and doubtful debt in banks.

                Ho:          Credit administration and management will no significant effect in minimizing    

bad and doubtful debt in banks.


Union bank take stock activities on the invaluable contributions they have made towards the growth and development of the Nigeria economy. They have nurtured many small business, which have grown to the big business of today in addition, they have partnered various tiers of governments as they seek to foster accelerated economic growth. Bank frontline position in the industry today is a testimony to its resilience and the appropriateness of its strategic options over the years, as thereby look ahead, they see enormous opportunities for the economy. Accordingly, we have embarked on some strategic initiatives that would enable adequately exploit those windows of opportunities.

In this regard, they have upgraded their flexcube banking application from 2007 4.3 to 6.5 (retail) and from 3.2 to 2.2 (corporate). The flexcube upgrade project was to allow match competition by providing value added services to valued customers. As part of the upgrade project, they carried out an extensive review and redesign of their business processes so as to enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of operations. Apart from huge investments in ICT infrastructure, the project also entailed massive expenditures on staff training, cutting across different cadres. These measures were further intended to dive our e-banking products and services and offer more convenience to customers 

1.5          SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of  the research is centered on the business operation and working on the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, which gives insight explanation on its management of bad doubtful debts in the loans and advances department and the effect bad debt on the profitability of banks.    


The limiting factors of bad debts on profitability in Union Bank useful advice and recommendation.

Owing to nature of this study which is restricted by certain factors like time and finance. It should be seen as extraneous functions in Union Bank Plc by using primary and secondary data. In computing this project, there were some few things that seems as constraints to the researcher.

1.      Financial Problem: This is an undeniable constraints faced by the researcher due to non-availability of money at the right period to sue in carrying out the research and to gather the needed information more effectively and accurately.

2.      Time: This is the main constraint faced the research in gathering and collection of needed information. As a result of this enough information was not gathered.  

1.7           ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY      

The problem of bad debt is an unhealthy phenomenon particularly in the area of banking business which has plagued the business for decades. It is self evident that financial institutions are not charitable organizations but profit oriented bodies which is similar to Union Bank of Nigeria plc. Bad debt intern is an old as Union Bank of Nigeria Plc through they were very insignificant compared to the company total loans and advances, corporate bodies and government agencies to honour their obligations.

The incident of bad debts become very pronounced at the berth of structural adjustment programme in July 1986 during the regime of General Ibrahim Babangiga, from the table given below it becomes abundantly clear that bad debts have generally been on the increase in the parable veins of debts turning to bad debt started in 1986, it is a serious concern to the board of Directors of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc. Hence the stricter policies on credit with similar course for both senior and junior management on bad debt and recoveries strategies.


Debt:       It can arises when one party with an asset rightly belonging to another party who is under obligation to pay back such assets with or without interest at a further date.

Bad Debt: This can be defined as irrecoverable debt on the balances of credit i.e. principal and accumulated interest in irrecoverable.

Debt Recovery Department: This is department is created to manage the affairs of bad in the Union Bank of Nigeria plc.

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