Background to the Study
Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language defines audio-visual aids as training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight; films, recordings, photographs, etc used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes. The term has also been defined by Dike (1993) as those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic. According to Anzaku (2011) the term audio-visual materials is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language. Thus, according to the above definitions, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making drama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips. Anzaku (2011) further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment for instructions, often referred to as hardware or components are the means of presenting such content. The importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes of social studies cannot be over emphasized. Some of the roles of audio visual materials include; basing learning in sense experience, extending experience, encouraging participation, stimulating interest, individualizes instructions, serves as a source of information, making learning permanent, basing learning in sense experience. Stressing the importance of audio-visual materials, Ngozi, Samuel, and Isaac, (2012) agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that is stimulated by external occurrences. Eze, (2013) also states that the human being learns more easily and faster by audio-visual processes than by verbal explanations alone. His ability to arrive at abstract concept through perceptual experience is however a phenomenon not clearly explained and perhaps not explicable. Furthermore, Oketunji (2000) stressed that audio-visual materials when effectively used have these advantages: they lessen major weakness of verbalism, humanize and vitalize subject matter, provide interesting approach to new topics and give initial correct impressions, economic time in learning, supply concrete materials needed, stimulate the initiative of the pupils. Swank, (2011) stressing the effectiveness of visual materials in leaning, estimated that about 40% of our conception is based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaneous organic sensation and 3% upon taste and smell. With the above assertion, it becomes clearer why audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes of social studies. This is because they bring the different senses’ contributions together to get 100% clarity.
This study is motivated by the result of series of observations that shows students’ poor learning/academic performance and the fact that students do not retain for long or understand what they are taught. This is as a result of lack of participation and interest or stimulation which has negatively affected teaching and learning of social studies in Nigerian secondary schools. Yet, there is also evidence of low utilization and non availability of audio-visual materials in secondary schools. The study therefore investigated the effect of audio visual technologies in teaching and learning among secondary school students. So that note will be taken of the hindrances and work towards promoting the use of audio-visual materials in Nigeria secondary school so as to halt the current trend of poor academic performance in Nigeria.
Purpose of the Study
The major aim of the study is to examine the effect of audio visual technology in teaching and learning of social studies among secondary school students. Other specific objectives of the study are;
- To examine the level of use of audio visual aids in Nigerian secondary schools for teaching social studies.
- To examine the need for use of audio visual materials in Nigerian secondary schools for teaching of social studies.
- To assess the effect of audio visual materials on students’ academic performance in social studies.
- To determine the factors militating against effective use of audio visual technologies in teaching and learning of social studies in Nigerian secondary schools.
- To recommend ways of improving the use of audio visual technologies in teaching and learning of social studies in Nigerian secondary schools.
The following questions were answered in the study
- What is the level of use of audio visual materials in Nigerian secondary schools for teaching of social studies?
- What is the need for use of audio visual materials in Nigerian secondary schools for teaching social studies?
- What is the effect of audio visual materials on students’ academic performance in social studies?
- What are the factors militating against effective use of audio visual technologies in teaching and learning of social studies in Nigerian secondary schools?
- What are the ways of improving the use of audio visual technologies in teaching and learning of social studies among Nigerian secondary schools?
H01: There is no significant effect of audio visual technology on teaching and learning of social studies in Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant relationship between audio visual technologies and teaching and learning of social studies in Nigeria.
Significance Of The Study
Audio-visual aids have been in existence for a longtime, but they are often underutilized in teaching and learning of social studies especially in Nigerian secondary schools. It is expected that, following the identification of the hindrances to maximum utilization of audio-visual technologies in secondary schools, effort will be made to minimize the effect of the hindrances and promote adequate utilization of these resources. Discoveries from the study will guide teachers, government, sponsoring bodies and donors on the purchase of not only printed materials but also non-print materials for schools and colleges. This study would be of immense importance to researchers, scholars and students who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
Scope Of The Study
1.8 Limitations of Study
Some constraints faced by the study include;
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection.
Time constraint– The researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. This consequently cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
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