Project Materials






This study focused on the academic performance and double promotion of students in private schools in the obio-akpor local government area. The study's total population is 200 staff members from selected primary schools. The researcher collected data using questionnaires as the instrument.

This study used a descriptive survey research design. The study included 133 respondents who included headmasters, administrative staff, head teachers, and junior staff. The collected data was organized into tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.


chapter One




1.1The Study's Background


The practice of allowing students to progress from one class to the next regardless of academic performance, also known as automatic promotion or double promotion, has divided education development stakeholders into supporters and opponents. The policy's origins can be traced back to the 1930s, according to Steiner (1986), and it is adopted and implemented in the perceived interest of a student's social and psychological well-being.

Arguments for and against double promotion revolve around its legitimacy as a viable alternative to grade retention in the pursuit of efficiency and improved learning outcomes. Studies conducted in both developed and developing countries to estimate the impact of automatic promotion and grade retention policies on students' learning achievements yielded mixed and inconclusive results.

Arguments in favor of the policy as a better alternative to grade retention fall into three broad categories: improving education quality, improving internal education efficiency, and personal development of students/learners.


Arguments for improving educational quality point to the fact that repetition does not improve low-achiever achievement or reduce the range of abilities, because each grade carries the retained student into the next year as a source of ability difference (Ndaruhustse, 2008; and Peterson et al., 1987). Furthermore, retaining students causes classroom crowding, resulting in high student-classroom ratios and high student-teacher ratios, lowering overall educational quality (Chimombo, 2005).

Double promotion, on the other hand, promotes equity in learning outcomes, particularly between male and female students (Ndaruhustse, 2008) and between and urban settings (Chen et al., ; and McCoy & Reynolds, ). Female students and students in rural schools have lower learning outcomes in developing countries than their male counterparts.

In terms of improving internal education efficiency, the arguments emphasize the policy's ability to save costs for both governments and households by reducing, if not eliminating, grade repetition, increasing survival and completion rates by reducing student dropout rates, and increasing the number of years low-achieving students spend in (Mehrotra, 1998; Verspoor, 2006; and Ndaruhutse, 2008).

In terms of learner personal development, grade repetition has been shown to have a negative impact on students' self-esteem and motivation (Xia & Kirby, 2009). Similarly, retention stigmatizes students and undermines their natural ability to interact with their peers.

This frequently results in alienation of the students in question, resulting in eventual exit from the schooling cycle (Holmes, 1989). Furthermore, repeating grades increases the time it takes to complete school as well as the time it takes to engage productively in the labor market, which represents a monetary cost to students over their life-cycles (Eide & Showalter, 2001).


of the problem

Arguments against double promotion claim that it reduces overall educational quality by eliminating competition, demotivating students and teachers alike, and lowering teaching and learning outcomes (Koppensteiner, 2014; Taye, 2003; and Chohan & Qadir, 2011). Grade retention, on the other hand, is thought to improve cognitive learning outcomes (Brophy, 2006; Roderick et al., 2002; and King et al., 1999).

t is worth noting that studies that have reported academic gains attributable to repetition have also stated that the gains are short-term, and as a result, retained students eventually fall behind, affecting their self-esteem and increasing the likelihood of dropping out (Brophy, 2006; and Jimerson et al., 1997).


The study's objective


The study's objectives are as follows:


To determine the impact of double promotion on student academic performance.

To determine whether double promotion of students occurs only in private schools.

to see if double promotion affects students' self-esteem and motivation

Hypotheses for research


The researcher developed the following research hypotheses in order to successfully complete the study:


H0: There is no effect of double promotion on pupil academic performance.


H1: There is an effect of double promotion on pupil academic performance.


H02: No students' self-esteem or motivation are affected by double promotion.


H2: double promotion has an impact on students' self-esteem and motivation.


Significance of the study


The study will be extremely beneficial to students, the Ministry of Education, and teachers. The study will provide a clear picture of double promotion and academic performance in private schools. The study will also be used as a resource for other researchers who will be working on a similar topic.


The study's scope and limitations


The research focuses on double promotion and academic performance of students in private schools. monetary constraint: Inadequate funding tends to impede the researcher's efficiency in locating relevant , literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process (internet, questionnaire and interview)


Time constraint: The researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


Term definitions


Grade skipping, also known as double promotion, is a major acceleration option discussed in primary school. This involves advancing a child more than one grade at the end of a school year.


Academic performance, also known as academic achievement, refers to the extent to which a student, teacher, or institution has met their short or long-term educational objectives. Academic achievement is demonstrated by the completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees.


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