Project Materials

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS

Determination Of The Presence And Concentration Of Some Phytochemicals In Avocado Pear (Persea Americana Mill) Seed

Do You Have New or Fresh ic? Send Us Your Topic

Determination Of The Presence And Concentration Of Some Phytochemicals In Avocado Pear (Persea Americana Mill)

Abstract

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence and concentration of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and cardiac glycosides in Persea americana was carried out. The sample was prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine.

The ground sample was stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid was determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid by ferric chloride test, tannin by acid test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test.

Quantitative determination of some of the phytochemicals was also carried out using standard methods. for qualitative analysis shows that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac  glycosides were present in P.american and sterols were absent .

The quantitative result  shows that alkaloid has the highest percentage of concentration (21.54%), followed by saponin (8.10%),  flavonoid (6.97%), cardiac glycoside (6.94%)  and tannin has the least percentage concentration (1.45%) .

Table Of content

Title page

Certification ………………………………………..………..………….……i

Dedication …………………………………………………………..….……ii

Acknowledgement ……………………………………………….…………iii

Abstract ……………………………………………….………………………iv

Table of content ……………………………………..……………………….v

CHAPTER  ONE

Introduction ………………………………………………………..…..……1

Background of the study…………………………………..……………………1

Objective of the …………………………………..…………………….……4

Scope of the study…………………………………..………………………..4

Significance of the study …………………………………..…………………5

CHAPTER TWO

…………………………………………..…..……………6

General description of Persea americana…………………..…..……………6

Phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables……………………..…..……………8

Nutritional of phytochemicals ……………………..…..…..….10

Medicinal uses of P.americana fruit……………………..……………….11

Constituents of P.americana fruit……………………..………………….13

Effect of P.americana on the body……………………..…………….….14

Wight……………………..………………………………………………….14

Hypertension / high blood pressure ……………………..………………….14

Wound healing activity ……………………..…………………………..….15

Natural products from plants that promote health………………….……….16

Alkaloid………………………………………………………………….….16

Sterols……………………..……………………………………………..….16

Flavonoids……………………..……………………………………………..….17

Tannins……………………..………………………………………………….….19

……………………..…………………………………………..….19

Cardiac glycoside……………………..……………………………………….20

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………..……………………………….….21

Materials ……………………..………………………………………………..….21

Preparation of sample……………………..………………………………….21

Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals ……………………….……………22

Test for alkaloids ……………………..……………………………………….22

Test for flavonoids……………………..………………………………….….23

Test for tannins ……………………..………………………………………….24

Test for saponins……………………..…………………………………….….25

Test for cardiac glycosides……………………..…………………………..….25

Test for steroids……………………..………………………………………….….26

Qualitative determination of the

Chemical constituent in P.americana………………………………………….….26

Allialoids determination……………………..………………………………….26

Flavonoids determination……………………..…………………………….….27

Saponin determination……………………..…………………………..……….28

Tannin determination by titration……………………..…………………….29

Cardiac glycosides determination ……………………..……………….….30

CHAPTER FOUR

…….……………………..……………………………………….….32

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion……………………..……………….…………………………..35

Conclusion……………………..……………….…………………………..37

Recommendation……………………..……………….……………………37

References……………………..……………….…………………………..39

Appendix……………………..……………….……………………………43

Chapter one

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants .

They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). It is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003).

The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent s secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002).

The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995).

The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

Objective of the study

  • To screenPerseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.
  • To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

Scope of the study

The study will cover the general description ofPerseaamericana, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables and nutritional of phytochemicals. The study will also cover the nutritional contents of P.americana fruit and its medicinal uses.

Effects ofP.americana on the body and the phytochemicalsto be determined will be discussed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of some phytochemicals will also be carried out.

Significance of the study

The significance of this study is thatP.americana plays a vital role in contributing to a healthy and balanced diet, reduced mental depression prevents coronary heart diseases, diabetes and prostate cancer in the body tissue and heal the scalp.

P.americana if consumed by individual can fight beriberi, cause a reduction in body weight and are used as antihypertensive drug for individuals with hypertension.

Do You Have New or Fresh ic? Send Us Your Topic 

 

 

 

Disclaimer: This Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research. You are allowed to use the original Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways: 1. As a source for additional understanding of the . 2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced). 3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase). 4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly). Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright.

Not What You Were Looking For? Send Us Your Topic

INSTRUCTIONS AFTER PAYMENT

After making payment, kindly send the following:
  • 1.Your Full name
  • 2. Your Active Email Address
  • 3. Your Phone Number
  • 4. Amount Paid
  • 5. ject ic
  • 6. Location you made payment from

» Send the above details to our email; contact@premiumresearchers.com or to our support phone number; (+234) 0813 2546 417 . As soon as details are sent and payment is confirmed, your project will be delivered to you within minutes.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Advertisements