Project Materials




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Robots are modern machines with better technological breakthroughs, and robotics is one of the subfields of mechatronics.

It is a mechanical/virtual artificial agent, typically a goal-driven machine, an electro-mechanical machine that runs on a sequence of computer programmes or electrical circuits. A robot based on the concept of medicine that can reason and has a sense of intelligence by emulating an automating movement.

There are various types and classifications of robots. Examples include the wheeled robot, crawling robot, and legged robot, among others.

To accomplish this mission, the Robot incorporates four distinct subsystems: navigation, vision, programming, and wireless control, all of which are mounted on a mobile platform. All of these subsystems are linked together by a microcontroller.

Various advancements have been made in the world of technology and robotics, some of which have been observed in artificial intelligence, general security, and so on, but the concern here is with an obstacle avoidance vehicle that incorporates knowledge from computer science,

robotics, system , algorithm, and electro mechanics, mechatronics, software development, engineering, and programming an autonomous robot.

This research focuses on the vehicle's ability to identify and navigate around obstacles by utilising components that enable these capabilities.

Electronics played a in the development and launch of the first electronic autonomous robots in Bristol, England, by William Grey Walter in 1984, as well as the first digital and programmable robot, Unimate, designed and named by George Devol in 1954.

In his dissertation, Sumit Garethiya states that “the first ever system to detect an obstacle was developed by Delco System operations, Goleta, California in 1988.” The study was primarily concerned with developing a safe method for detecting road hazards and informing motorists.

Robotics is a rapidly growing invention in today's environment. With the growth of technology that resulted in the creation of a robot, human existence has grown more convenient and relaxed as a result of the evolution of different technology in numerous disciplines of research.

Robotics are employed in places where it is risky for humans to go directly; these robots are used in those places by gathering information from the environment to avoid obstacles. Robots are utilised in factories and industries to keep workers safe.

Nowadays, many sectors, such as (legos robotic), employ robots because of their efficiency, performance, and dependability, which is extremely beneficial to human existence.

According to their mission, the design of an obstacle avoidance robotic car requires the integration of numerous components such as an ultrasonic sensor, microcontroller, diodes, motor drivers IC, DC Motors, and so on.

This paper suggests an autonomous robotic car that can control its direction when it encounters an obstacle. This vehicle is powered by a microcontroller from the (PIC16F84Afamily).

An ultrasonic sensor detects any obstacles in front of the robotic car and sends the signal to the microcontroller. The input signal received determines how the microcontroller interprets it and controls the robot to move in a different direction by firing the motors via a motor driver.

The basic purpose of the car is to travel in a straight line, and if the car detects an obstruction in its route, it uses an ultrasonic sensor to dodge the obstacle and then continues on its own path. This self-driving robot's primary responsibility is obstacle detection.

The sensor-mounted robot gathers information from its immediate surroundings using various sensing devices such as an infrared sensor, an ultrasonic sensor, cameras, and so on.

For this project, we will utilise an ultrasonic sensor that will be attached in front of the robot and a multi vibrator that will be fastened at its base. Because of its long range, ultrasonic sensors are better suited for obstacle detection.

The emitter and detector of an ultrasonic sensor are separate components. The emitter generates a 40KHz sound wave and the detector detects a 40KHz sound wave and emits frequency signals;

when an obstacle is detected, these signals are reflected back and used as input to the microcontroller. Based on the data received from the ultrasonic sensor, the microcontroller controls in one of three directions: left, right, or front.

The goal of the research is to create a robotic automobile that will move according to the code that has been programmed into it.

It will move in a straight line and if it detects an obstruction in its path, it will look for a clear space and avoid the obstacle.The obstacle avoidance robot might be beneficial in a variety of settings, such as the industrial sector, where less monitoring is required to reduce the danger of human injury while working.


In the past, the rate of accidents on a typical Nigerian road has risen with time and continues to rise. The main cause of these accidents is a lack of awareness of impediments (bumps),

whether it is a coming vehicle, a pedestrian, or even a domestic animal on the road, as well as braking failure in rare situations.

The research is an attempt to create a robotic automobile that can identify and avoid obstacles (bumps) in its path using a sensor in order to reach the target place in the most efficient way possible.

With the use of an obstacle avoidance technology in the car, it will automatically alert the driver (or even the car itself) of the obstacle ahead with a possible means of avoiding the obstacle depending on the advancement of the technology, effectively lowering the rate of road mortality.

When the robot encounters an environment it is unfamiliar with, it will pause and evaluate the environment to identify any obstacles. With the use of cutting-edge equipment, the robot can avoid obstacles and choose a safe path, resulting in fewer accidents and non-avoidance of obstacles.

When the robotic car completes a task, it stores the task, which allows it to perform better when another task is assigned, which is based on the updated percept (a mix of the current percept and the information in its knowledge base with an internal ).

The goal of this project is to create an obstacle avoidance robotic automobile that is effective enough to be used in today's latest vehicles.

This project's precise goals are as follows:

To evaluate engineering, mechatronics, and software development literature in the design, fabrication, and programming of an autonomous robot.

To create a robotic automobile capable of detecting obstacles in a controlled environment.

To connect the robot to a real-time system so that it can do given tasks.

Methodology for achieving optimal robot performance and distinguishing quality in comparison to other known obstacle avoidance robots

To analyse literature in the domains of engineering, mechatronics, and software development while designing, building, and programming an autonomous robot.

Many connected works on the study of engineering, mechatronics, and software development in the construction of a robotic car have been produced.

Different of computer science have been discussed as a result of exposure to similar research about obstacle avoidance,

ranging from software creation to the assembly of numerous components required to the project work utilising a well-structured circuit design. We were able to establish a viable technique for the project based on our knowledge and understanding of the study.

To fulfil the goal of detecting barriers in an environment, the following conditions must be met:
Obstacle Sensing Unit: basically an ultrasonic sensor based on the HR-SC04 Model.

Angle Scanning Unit: a servomotor with a hanger attached to a sensor. It is a rotating motor that allows the sensor to be positioned linearly and angularly.

The following are required for the robot to accomplish tasks utilising the real-time system:
The comparator unit compares the sensor voltage to a reference voltage, and the output voltage is passed to the microcontroller, which is the robot's decision-making mechanism.

The Signal Processing Unit is made up of a microcontroller that is pre-installed with function software that supports the robot's decision making.

Using the PIC16F84A microcontroller, which has a flash memory for fast signal response and 68bytes of RAM for user storage.

Motor Drive Unit: The motor drivers perform out the decisions made by the microcontroller, such as turning left or right or going slowly or quickly.

Finally, a Power source Unit is required to power the entire system using a 9v power source.

To achieve best performance from the robot and distinguishing quality in comparison to other known obstacle avoidance robots.

Many other people throughout the world have contributed to our initiative by developing an autonomous robotic car in various ways and techniques.

By constructing an autonomous robotic car with a free wheel in front of it that controls the other two wheels behind it, we were able to distinguish our own robotic car from the earlier work done by the other researcher.

The robot can move in a straight line by scanning both left and right and choosing the direction that is free for it to move. If both sides are blocked, it will reverse back and stop until it can scan again for a free space.

In real life, avoiding obstacles is quite useful. The robotic car's job is to detect any obstacles in its path. Obstacles include chairs, desks, bottles, walls, and so on,

and the robotic car changes its direction to avoid any collisions based on a pre-programmed programme on the microcontroller that can only be executed when it receives a signal from the environment via the sensor mounted in front of the robotic car, as the name implies obstacle avoidance robotic car.

This robot will be able to do the fundamental functions using the code that has been programmed into it, such as sensing an obstacle, decoding the information from the sensor,

and then performing the appropriate task, such as moving forward or scanning its environment for an obstruction in its path. When the full system is coupled, the car will reach excellent avoidance functionality.

This study is focused on developing an autonomous obstacle avoidance robot that can detect any obstacle in its path using an ultrasonic sensor and then make a 90 or 180 degree turn to avoid the obstacle and resume its normal path, which is controlled by a microcontroller. The research would be limited to robotic obstacle avoidance.

Other Chapters' Organisation
This project is divided into five chapters, which are described below:

Introduction, Problem statement, Aims and objectives of the system, Methodology, Significance of study, Scope of study, and Expected outcome are all included in Chapter One.

The second chapter includes a review of the literature: To examine some of the related work that has already been completed in this area.

Chapter Three: Include the Design and Analysis, as well as the project component.

Chapter four contains the circuit design, model algorithm codes, testing, and design implementation.

Chapter Five contains the overview, conclusion, recommendation, limitation, and future research proposals.

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