Project Materials




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Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Background for the Study

A robot is defined as a modern machine with increased technological breakthroughs, and robotics is a subset of mechatronics. It is classified as a mechanical/virtual artificial agent, typically a goal-driven machine or an electromechanical machine that is controlled by a set of computer programmes or electrical circuits.

A robot based on the medical notion that can reason and have a sense of intelligence by emulating automated movement. There are various categories and types of robots. Examples include: wheeled robots, crawling robots, and legged robots.

To accomplish this goal, the Robot incorporates four distinct subsystems: navigation, vision, programming, and wireless control, all installed on a transportable platform. A microcontroller serves as the interface between all of these subsystems.

Various advances have been made in the world of technology and robotics; some of these advancements have been observed in artificial intelligence, general security, and so on; however, the focus here is on an obstacle avoidance vehicle that incorporates knowledge from computer science

robotics, system analysis, algorithms, and electro mechanics, mechatronics, software development, engineering, and programming an autonomous robot. This study focuses on the vehicle’s capacity to identify and go around obstacles using components that enable these capabilities.

Electronics played a role in the development and launch of the first electronic autonomous robots, built in Bristol, England in 1984 by William Grey Walter, as well as the first digital and programmable robot, Unimate, invented and named by George Devol in 1954.

According to Sumit Garethiya’s dissertation, “the first ever system to detect an obstacle was developed by Delco System Operations, Goleta of California in 1988”. The study primarily focused on a safe method of detecting road hazards and informing drivers.


In today’s society, robots is a rapidly expanding innovation. Human existence has gotten more convenient and relaxing as technology has advanced, resulting in the creation of robots.

Robotics are utilised in regions that are too risky for humans to enter directly; these robots avoid obstacles by absorbing information from their surroundings. Robots are utilised in factories and industries to keep workers safe.

Nowadays, many sectors, such as Legos Robotics, use robots due to their high efficiency, performance, and dependability, which is extremely beneficial to human lives.

The design of an obstacle avoidance robotic car necessitates the integration of numerous components such as an ultrasonic sensor, microcontroller, diodes, motor drivers integrated circuits, DC motors, and so on, depending on their function.

This paper suggests an autonomous robotic car that can control its direction when an obstacle appears in its path. This automobile is powered by a microcontroller (PIC16F84A family). An ultrasonic sensor detects any obstacles ahead of the robotic car and transmits the signal to the microcontroller.

The input signal received determines how the microcontroller interprets it and controls the robot to move in a different direction by triggering the motors, which are accomplished via a motor driver.

The car’s main goal is to travel in a straight line, and if it detects an obstruction in its route, it uses an ultrasonic sensor to dodge the object and then continues on its own path. This self-driving robot’s primary function is to detect obstacles.

The robot obtains information from its immediate environment via the sensor fixed robot, which includes a variety of sensing devices such as an infrared sensor, an ultrasonic sensor, and cameras.

For this project, we will utilise an ultrasonic sensor attached to the front of the robot and a multi vibrator fixed to its base. Because of its wide range, an ultrasonic sensor is more suited for obstacle detection.

The ultrasonic sensor is made up of two parts: the emitter and the detector. The emitter generates a 40KHz sound wave, and the detector detects the sound wave and emits frequency signals;

when an obstacle is detected, these signals are reflected back, which is considered input to the microcontroller. Based on the ultrasonic sensor’s signal, the microcontroller controls in one of three directions: left, right, or front.

The study aims to create a robotic automobile that will operate in accordance with the code placed on it; it will move in a straight line and, if it detects an obstruction in its path, it will look for a clear space and avoid it.

The obstacle avoidance robot might be useful in a variety of settings, including industrial areas where less supervision is required, reducing the danger of human injury while working.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Historically, the rate of accidents on a typical Nigerian road has increased with time, and it continues to rise. The primary cause of these accidents is a lack of awareness of impediments (bumps), whether they be a coming vehicle, a pedestrian, or even a pet animal on the road, and, in some cases, braking failure.

The project is an attempt to construct a robotic automobile that can identify and avoid obstacles (bumps) in its path using a sensor in order to reach the target place in an optimal manner.

With the use of obstacle avoidance technology in the car, it will automatically alert the driver (or even the car itself) of the obstacle ahead, with a possible means of avoiding the obstacle depending on the advancement of the technology, thereby effectively reducing road fatalities.

When the robot encounters an unfamiliar location, it will pause and scan the environment, allowing it to recognise any obstacles. With the use of cutting-edge equipment, the robot can avoid barriers and locate a secure path, resulting in fewer accidents and obstructions that cannot be avoided.

Once the robotic car completes a task, it will retain the task, which will help it perform better when another task is assigned based on the updated percept (a mix of the current percept and the information in its knowledge base with an internal state).

Aim and Objectives of the Study
The goal of this project is to create an obstacle avoidance robotic automobile that is effective enough to be used in modern model vehicles.

The precise objectives of this initiative include:

To review literature on engineering, mechatronics, and software development in the design, fabrication, and programming of an autonomous robot.
Design a robotic car that can detect obstacles in a controlled area.

To connect the robot to a real-time system that will allow it to fulfil given tasks.

The goal is to improve the robot’s performance and differentiate it from other obstacle avoidance robots using a unique methodology.

To analyse literature in the domains of engineering, mechatronics, and software development in the context of designing, building, and programming an autonomous robot.

Many related studies have been conducted on the engineering, mechatronics, and software development aspects of developing a robotic car.

With exposure to similar studies on obstacle avoidance, numerous aspects of computer science have been covered, ranging from software creation to the assembly of various components required to complete the project work utilising a well-structured circuit design.

We were able to gain a good understanding of the study and establish an appropriate methodology for the project.

To meet the goal of detecting barriers in an area, the following must be ensured:

The obstacle sensing unit is principally made up of an ultrasonic sensor based on the HR-SC04 model.

The Angle Scanning Unit is made up of a servomotor and a hanger attached to the sensor. It is a rotary motor that provides linear and angular positioning for the sensor.

For the robot to complete tasks utilising the real-time system, the following are needed:

Comparator Unit: operates by comparing the sensor voltage to a reference voltage, and the output voltage is supplied to the microcontroller, the robot’s decision-making unit.

Signal Processing Unit: consists of a microcontroller pre-installed with function software that supports the robot’s decision-making. Using the PIC16F84A microcontroller, which has a flash memory for fast signal response and 68 bytes of RAM for user storage.
Motor Drive Unit:

Using the signal given from the microcontroller, the motor drivers carry out the decisions made, such as turning left or right, going slowly or quickly.

Finally, a Power source Unit is required to power the entire system using a 9-volt power source.

To acquire the best possible performance from the robot and distinguish it from other known obstacle avoidance robots.

Many other people throughout the world have worked on our project, developing an autonomous robotic car using various methods and techniques.

We were able to distinguish our own robotic car from the prior work of the other researcher by creating an autonomous robotic car with a free wheel in front of it that controls the other two wheels behind it.

The robot can move in a straight line by scanning both left and right and selecting the direction that is free for it to move; if both sides are blocked, it will reverse back and stop until it finds a free area again.

Significance of the Study

Obstacle avoidance is quite useful in real life. The robotic automobile is to detect any obstacles that come its way. Obstacles include chairs, desks, bottles, walls, and so on, and the robotic car changes direction accordingly to avoid any collisions based on the pre-existing programme on the micro controller

which can only be performed when it receives a signal from the environment via the sensor mounted in front of the robotic car. This robot will be able to create basic performance by using the code programmed on it to feel the obstacle, decode the information received from the senso

and then do the appropriate duty, such as moving ahead or scanning its environment for obstacles in its path. When the complete system is merged, the car’s avoidance functionality improves significantly.


Scope of Study
This research aims to create an autonomous obstacle avoidance robot that uses an ultrasonic sensor to detect obstacles and make a 90˚ or 180 ˚ turn to avoid them. The microcontroller will control the robot’s normal direction. The research would be focused on obstacle avoidance utilising robotics.

Organisation of Other Chapters

This project is made up of five chapters, as described below:

The first chapter includes the introduction, problem description, system’s goals and objectives, methodology, significance of study, scope of investigation, and expected conclusion.

Chapter Two: Includes the Literature Review: To review some of the previous work in this area.

Chapter Three: Contains the design and analysis, as well as the project components.

Chapter Four contains the circuit design, Model Algorithm programmes, testing, and design implementation.

Chapter Five includes a summary, conclusion, recommendation, limitation, and suggestions for future research.

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