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Chapter one


1.1 Background for the Study

Student Identification and Tracking using Biometric Identification Systems are becoming increasingly crucial in the education industry for precisely identifying and tracking students. Standard student attendance monitoring mechanisms, such as roll call, are limited and inconsistent [1].

Academic institutions are increasingly relying on biometric student monitoring systems because they are more precise, faster, practical, and valuable mechanisms for safeguarding students’ credentials and security.

It has been suggested that traditional student identification and presence approaches, such as roll call or paper-based attendance, are out of date, causing academics and supervisors to spend too much time tracking student progress.

Manual monitoring is also difficult when dealing with large classes of children. As a result, present monitoring systems contain vulnerabilities that make it impossible to prevent proxy attendance, identity card theft, impersonation, and monitoring errors, all of which have a direct influence on educational quality [2].

According to Manoharan et al. [3], biometric identification technologies allow students to check in and exit quickly and efficiently.

To ensure identification accuracy, avoid mistakes, and eliminate proxy attendance, as well as in the case of identical twins, biometric technology employs physiological and biometric features (which vary by individual).

Biometric technology’s strong encryption protects students from identity theft. According to Thomas et al [4], biometric attendance technologies have enhanced the precision with which students’ attendance is captured and monitored.

When a biometric attendance system captures a different physiological characteristic, such as a hand or fingerprint, an iris pattern, or even a voice recording, it acts as a record for identification verification, allowing the confirmed individual to perform the work as permitted.

Biometric attendance devices also maintain track of employees’ work schedules, including who did what and when. Biometric attendance machines are increasingly used. To ensure attendance accuracy, biometric attendance systems use failsafe technology such as fingerprints.

These approaches are particularly successful when working with large groups of employees or pupils. As an extra bonus, it allows administrators to easily track both personnel and student absences.

Fingerprint, face, iris, and retinal pattern recognition are all forms of biometrics that can be used to verify an individual’s identity. These physical data approaches are gaining traction as a more convenient personal identification method than traditional methods such as passwords or ID cards since they use measurement data, which is unique to the individual and remains so throughout one’s lifetime [5].

Examination, as a tool, facilitates testing, evaluation, and accreditation. However, most schools require students to satisfy a certain percentage of class attendance requirements before taking a test [6].

However, due to the difficulty of manually taking attendance and keeping records, many institutions in developing countries have failed to achieve this criteria.

Most developing-country institutions continue to use pen and paper to track student attendance, which has been proved to be stressful, time-consuming, unreliable, wrong, and inefficient, according to Adetiba et al. [7].

Students will be identified and validated individually before taking an exam using biometric technologies in the same way. Unauthorised participation in an examination is prohibited by validating the behaviour features of each student with a unique character, such as a fingerprint.

Biometric systems, such as fingerprints or signatures, analyse physical and behavioural features, as described by Jaiswal et al. [8]. According to research, tests are the most commonly used tool in the educational system [9].

Most educational systems include some form of evaluation to determine their effectiveness. It’s a tool used to determine who gets to go up the academic ladder. In actuality, exams and professor evaluations constitute the basis of the grading system into which all students are assigned on an annual or more regular basis [10].

Non-automated biometrics have been used since the beginning of human civilization, when humans began to identify one another based on physical or behavioural characteristics. Biometrics isn’t a new concept. It is the oldest method of identification in use today.

According to Woodward et al. [11], biometric authentication dates back over a thousand years to the use of fingerprints to identify objects by East Asian potters. According to [9], handwritten signatures (chops) served as an early type of biometric identification in old China.

Bertillon Systems began measuring their subjects’ length, arm length, and thumb and forefinger duration in 1882. One of the first institutional applications of biometric data (in this case, fingerprints) was in criminal records.

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