Project Materials




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Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

We frequently need to monitor individuals who visit places such as seminar halls, conference rooms, shopping malls, and temples. This project can be used to count and display the number of guests that enter any conference room or lecture hall.

This counter is bidirectional, which means it works both ways. That is, the counter will be increased when a person enters the room and decreased when a person exits. The LCD displays this value, which is located outside the room.

This approach is useful for calculating the number of people in an auditorium or hall for a seminar to avoid overcrowding. It can also be used to determine how many people attended an event or visited a museum to see a specific exhibit.

Microcontrollers are dependable circuits that precisely count the number of people/visitors in a room. We will display both the in count (number of persons entering the room) and the out count (number of people exiting the room) on a 16×2 Alphanumeric LCD.

An infrared sensor is used to track who enters and exits the room. The microcontroller performs the aforementioned function. I collect signals from sensors and operate them using control software stored in ROM.

The microcontroller 89s52 continuously monitors the infrared receivers. When an object passes across the IR receivers, the IR Rays falling on the receiver are obstructed, which is detected by the microcontroller.

1.1 Background Study.

The number of visits to protected and recreational areas has nearly doubled during the last 10 years worldwide (Horne et al., 1998). National parks and other recreational places now receive an estimated 500 million visitors every year.

These assumptions are based on several methods of estimating the number of visitors. Previously, the estimations were based on trail logs, footprint examinations and trail deterioration, various permits, and the best estimates produced by workers operating in the region.

However, the lack of uniformity in global country development, as well as the lack of uniformity in data collection procedures, has made it difficult to accurately estimate the number of visits to public areas in particular nations and the world as a whole.

This makes accurate visitor counts not only difficult, but also highly complex. Over the last two years, there have been significant initiatives to count visitors to public spaces more routinely and reliably.

Some counters were already in use in the mid-1990s, although they were not fully utilised. The publishing of a visitor counting manual in Finnish (Horne et al., 1998), which has been widely used in practice, made more precise estimation of the number of visitors much easier.

Other good visitor counting manuals have been published, for example, in Scotland and the United States (Dales et al., 1993; Yuan et al., 1995).The problem has been, and continues to be, a lack of systematic and trustworthy visitor statistics.

Reliable visitor estimates are critical for planning and controlling the use of the designated locations. Such estimations allow for a more accurate picture of the area’s use and the sites with the highest tourist traffic.

Information on visitor numbers assists those in charge of maintaining the regions in controlling the flow of visitors, such as guiding them to routes that cause little damage to the plants and terrain.

Furthermore, visitor counts assist in the maintenance and development of services so that they better reflect the actual number of visitors to the region (for example, firewood supply and rubbish disposal).

Furthermore, reliable visitor figures, together with other information acquired from visitor surveys, are required to assess the success of the area’s own operations and track changes.

Visitor counting consists of the following distinct stages:

Careful planning for the visitor count

Installation of counters on the landscape

Monitoring counters in the terrain

Define the correction coefficient for the counters.

Count the number of visits

Visitor counting offers statistics on the number of actual visits to a location. When this data is paired with information gathered from visitor surveys, it is feasible to estimate the number of visitors, or how many people visit the location.

Data on the number of visitors to public places such as retail malls, religious centres, and movies is frequently required for marketing research or statistics. The officers who guard the entry usually do the counting manually.

If this method is repeated for an extended period of time, it will be susceptible to human error. The same is true for rooms such as laboratories, main halls, mosques, and bedrooms.

With the introduction of the industrial and business eras in Nigeria, as well as the subsequent building of various public locations such as churches, retail malls, leisure centres, and so on, there is a need for effective visitor control and management planning and implementation.

This will assist in maintaining accurate population density data over time, identifying potential structural and social hazards, and making effective population-related decisions.


Background reading indicated that visitor counting technologies had been around since the 1990s. However, there are some limitations in the current system. Visitor counting is essentially a measurement of the number of people who enter and exit offices, malls, and sports arenas.

Counting visitors helps an organisation maximise its personnel efficiency and effectiveness, floor space, and sales potential. Visitor counting is not confined to a company’s entry/exit points; it has a wide range of applications that give management with information on the number and movement of people across a place.

However, a key way of counting visits entails engaging human auditors to stand and manually tally the number of people who pass through a specific place. However, human-based data collecting is very expensive.

With humans handling the manual counting of visits, there is a risk of inefficiencies, misrepresentation, time waste, and unwanted cost consequences. With this in mind, it is critical to create and promote a bidirectional digital visitor counter that uses a microcontroller.

This will reduce all human interaction to a minimum and ensure that the process of collecting data on visitors’ visits is less time-consuming, efficient, and nearly error-free.

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