CROSS VENTILATION IN PUBLIC BUILDING
One of the essential necessities of existence, along with food, shelter, water, and air, is extremely important to humans, especially in public buildings where traffic and congestion are common.
Because the majority of people's daily activities take place indoors, the atmosphere inside public buildings has a major impact on the health and safety of the majority of the population and can actually have more damaging effects on health than pollution in the air outside. Cross ventilation in public buildings is therefore required since it serves to lessen these health concerns while also protecting the public buildings.
A public facility could be a church, mosque, school, or hospital that has a huge crowd for a variety of reasons, and so on. If sufficient care is not taken in public buildings, which are always crowded, the inhabitants must be provided with good ventilation to avoid suffocating; hence there is a need for cross ventilation in public buildings.
Furthermore, Maslow 1943 believed that cross ventilation is critical for human existence when considering the core basic requirements and necessities. He went on to say that shelter, food security, and water are key ingredients that nourish the psychological and mental frame of mind of humans,
and that when these basic needs are addressed, human production rises to the next level in the quest for improved living conditions. Ventilation is vital to home comfort, according to O' Brien 2016. proper ventilation keeps air pollutants from hurting your and your family's health. Not only that, but having air flow in your home can help to eliminate any unpleasant odours,
such as those caused by cooking and dogs. It is also important to maintain an uninterrupted air flow because anything that blocks the air in your home can do damage to both your home and your health. In regard to the mentioned, this study focused on determining and assessing cross ventilation in public buildings.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Pultar (1999), architectural space and circulation, as well as precisely conceived and planned space, are what make architecture what it is, the space that we live in, move in, and use. Space studies are developed in a variety of fields, each with its own meaning.
It is a concept that is central to many different fields of study and has many different meanings, ranging from completely abstract motion such as mathematical space to physical ones such as astronomical space to more earthly
ones such as the expanse that surrounds us to behavioural notions such as territorial space and personal space. Because there are so many different sorts of space, defining space in planning and design is difficult. However, in general, is a three
The three-dimensional extension of the wall surrounding us, as well as the intervals, distances, and relationships between people and things. Architectural space is defined as subsets of three-dimensional extensions of the wall around us that are entered by man,
include definite material elements, particularly a base that allows one to perceive its boundaries and its perceive as a whole, serve human functions of habitation, shelter, or circulations, and are internationally built or appropriated by man to serve such functions (Pultar 1999).
According to O'Brien (2016), one of the reasons ventilation is so crucial is that it regulates the amount of moisture in your home. If you have proper air movement throughout your home, your walls, flooring, and all the wood in your home will stay dry and not accumulate moisture.
Wood, like dry wall, can rot when exposed to moisture. If you allow moisture to accumulate in certain places of your home, it will not only ruin the structural integrity, but it will also cause mould to grow. If you are exposed to mould for an extended period of time, it can have a range of severe impacts on your health.
One essential reason is that a structure allows us to shape numerous parts of the natural environment, which we sample using one of our five senses (feelings, seeing, hearing, smelling, and testing).
Our senses allow us to perceive heat, light, sound, and odours, determining the nature of the natural and constructed environments. Our ability to feel the various sorts of energy that surrounds us determines our experience of the environment.
Mechanical energy (sound) and radiant energy (light, thermal energy; heat). And, while odour is not a distinct energy form, it is affected by thermal and possibly mechanical energy (Heerwagen, 2004).
Identity is shaped and expressed through architectural space. The concept of architectural space should also be understood to include structures of space, which are groups of spaces that are so interconnected that the functions they provide extend through these spaces.(2010) (Baxter and Martin).
According to O'Brien, if you are exposed to moulds for an extended period of time, you may get minor symptoms such as nose, throat, and eye irritation. If you are exposed for an extended period of time,
you may acquire a headache or a fever. Mould can both induce immune system issues and exacerbate symptoms in people who already have an auto immune disorder.
Prolonged mould exposure can cause respiratory damage that cannot be reversed, such as Asthma. You won't have to worry about mould growing in your home if you have sufficient ventilation. Man's involvement in its creation and participation in its life is a fundamental feature of an architectural environment.
It is described as communications among differentiated spaces and between the exterior and the interior in the simplest plans, but most buildings require distinct spaces allotted to horizontal and vertical circulation such as corridors, lobbies, stairs, rams and lifts, to name a few. Because their functions can differ, these are designed by the analysis processes used for differentiating purposes (Pultar, 2009).
The desire to conduct this research was sparked by the fact that churches, schools, and hospitals are identified as public buildings that house large crowds, and thus natural cross ventilation is critical in achieving comfort and preventing suffocation and other air bone diseases.
As a result, providing fresh air to the building is essential, and inadequate ventilation might produce fatigue, loss of attention, or headache. Cross ventilation allows you to adjust the air quality in your building. I witnessed an incident in one of these churches in the Jos North area of Plateau state that was so bad that someone may have died.
In trying to learn the truth about what happened, I discovered that the people who were directly involved and impacted reported that there was a teargas attack by police officers around the church premises,
and many people almost died as a result of the throng and lack of air in the church. On that point, ventilation, as it were, is highly crucial in human life, which prompted the necessity for this investigation.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study's goal is to analyse the level of performance of natural air ventilation with a case study of various churches, schools, and hospitals in Plateau State's Jos North Area. Many people were rendered immobile due to the lack of specialists; I noticed that most buildings in Jos north Area of Plateau State were not constructed by professionals.
In light of the foregoing, the research will linger in determining how can the erection of buildings follow setting standards and established guidelines that would put human safety (health), human comforts, and guaranty proper cultural heritage, thereby guaranteeing a qualitative and sustenance of good standard of living, in terms of provision of basic necessities of life (such as food and shelter).
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The goal of this research is to improve cross ventilation in public buildings.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following aims will help to attain the study's goal:
Look into the present trend.
Buildings must be properly oriented in relation to their openings
Provide adequate fenestration to allow for proper ventilation and lighting in buildings.
The use of landscape to control microclimates.
1.6 THE STUDY'S OBJECTIVE
Due to constraints such as financial, time, and geographical constraints, the researchers concentrated on the practises and effects of cross ventilated public buildings, citing the research work to Jos metropolis as the research findings can be used for proper solutions to building erecting in Nigeria in the future.
1.7 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The conclusions of this study should provide insight into how to create cross ventilation in public buildings. The information obtained from this study will serve as a guide for attaining appropriate cross ventilation in terms of sustainability.
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study would look into the available literature on the topic under consideration. The study would use a survey method in the form of questionnaires because it allows for inferences about the characteristics of a population, which is the study's goal.
The following methods would be used to collect and collate data for this research project: The data obtained for the research activity was exposed to and tested by the use of statistical tools and statistical means of analysis, with the statistical tool used to be descriptively analysed.
Primary data: a personal study conducted through data collecting in the form of questionnaires distributed to public building inhabitants, as well as site observation.
Secondary data: information gleaned from books, articles, and journals on the subject of evaluation. This would be done in order to have a proper, well-researched issue by extracting important material that would aid in buttressing the research's aim and objectives.