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Chapter one


As long as humans rely on one another in conduct and action, economic activities and administration are growing increasingly complex, and organisations are gravitating towards grouping together, while the majority of organisations are worldwide.

Institutions within the same organisation or ministry may be separated geographically by a significant distance. As a result, it is often hard for a public organisation and its managers to convene an effective meeting or contact all interested parties.

As a result, excellent communication is required for any organisation, administration, or institution to function properly.

Levis and Buker (1983) defined communication as the transmission of ideas, attitudes, wishes, and data to another person, but it is more than just an exchange of evidence. Communication is concerned with the successful transfer of messages from sender to recipient.

Communication may also be defined as the process by which one person (group) shares and influences information with another person or group so that both persons and groups can properly comprehend each other.

Communication is defined as the transmission of information, news, and feelings from one person to another James et al. (1990).

As a result of the above, it is possible to conclude that communication is more than simply providing understandable information and receiving and comprehending the message that is conveyed. Communication is the process of sending a message from one location to another via a certain channel.

PW Atkuns (1987) To him, communication may take many forms, including verbal, radio, and written. He went on to say that humans cannot survive without communication, particularly in modern administration.

Communication exists everywhere, and it has now become an essential tool for good management.

According to Strams.G Sayles (1992), communication is involved with the expression, transmission, interpretation, and use of information. Communication can be person-to-person, such as when a boss tells someone what to do and a subordinate reports back to his superior from this point.
Communication can also take place on a departmental or corporate level in any organisation. When multiple departments exchange information from one to the other, reaction reports and remarks are more or less successfully picked up again.

Background of the study
In a cross-cultural research on communication encompassing the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom, it was determined that communication breakdown was the single greatest impediment to corporate performance. Inefficient communication inside an organisation is indicative of a fairly corporate chain.

Communication tends to be very good when the administrators in an organisation are friendly and have a good working report, but when the numbers of the organisation engaged in mutual distrust, resentment, gossips

or when there is a feeling of incompetence and insecurity, communication breakdown is bound to occur, and communication breakdown can lead to the downfall of all administrators, management, and an organisation in general.

However, all of the essential activities of administrators and organisations, such as planning, organising, leading, and managing, rely on effective and proper execution.

An empirical study found that white-collar employees communicated 70% of the time, emphasising the need of communication for administrators. These include any of the four formal modes of communication: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Directing, as one of the major functions of an administrator, necessitates good communication and proper implementation. All good leaders promote effective communication by establishing channels (formal and informal) for transmitting information to people.

When the leader sets the pace for open communication by encouraging subordinates to be honest, soliciting information, and providing feedback, he creates a positive organisational climate for administrators.

In all businesses, an effective organisational channel is required to communicate firm policies, programmes, rules, regulatory authorities, and the general public.

Good communication with the board of directors, management, and administrators, as well as documents and subordinates, is how an administration retains goodwill.

Communication’s impact on an organisation can be measured in terms of attitude and performance since it affects employers’ morale, attitudes towards leadership or administration, and, as a result, productivity.

The good administrator recognises the need to convey expertise and information to individuals in the organisation through various means of communication, such as directing, regulating, organising, decision-making, and coordinating approaches.

The administrator’s level of success is also determined by the strength of his communication skills. After all, the major purpose of an administrator is to manage the relationship between the institution and its environment with the overall goal of attaining optimal performance of the organisation’s primary tasks.

For administration, the word communicator saves two important functions.

It provides a mechanism for implementing a plan of action that is coordinated towards a single purpose.

It provides a means of motivating members of the organisation to carry out the plan gladly and passionately.

As a result, communication is absolutely necessary for issuing directives and eliciting participative answers.

Statement of the Problem
The background of communication also includes a summary of the communication problem, i.e. communication is a two-way street, meaning information comes from more than just the supervisor or subordinate.

It also passes from subordinate to supervisor in an organisation. Communication does not only occur between organisations; knowledge can also be sent horizontally

for example, within an institution from one department to another, such as in Kaduna Polytechnic from the department of public administration to the department of Local Government studies.

Based on the foregoing, it is possible to conclude that poor communication within an institution or organisation may result in departmental conflict or efficient and effective communication;

thus, these studies would examine erotically the following question, also known as the problem statement, in order to establish fact. The significance of efficient communication in an institution;

Does management communicate with employees through the proper channels?

How does the management communicate with everyone in the institution?

Do union leaders, as representatives of splices, carry out their linkage duty in the best interests of employees and management?

How do employees in various departments share shared views?

Why is it that communication, as the essence of any organisation, is not being used effectively by management to bridge the gap between employees and management, particularly in economic matters that benefit the employees?

For example, increases in pay or wages, bonus fringe benefits, leave allowance, and many other research questions that are still critical to the success of this project as well as beneficial to the researcher and the institution, which rely heavily on the essence of effective communication, will be addressed during the course of this research.

The chapter cannot be complete without considering one of the various aspects of organisational communication.
This is concerned with his function.

In Nigeria, conflicts between supervisors and subordinates are typically caused by the subordinate’s perceived failure to complete instructions. When an angry supervisor discovers that his directions have not been followed, he reprimands his subordinates and calls humans.

He may accuse him of being lethargic, irresponsible, lacking imagination and common sense, and being a misfit inside the organisation.

The subordinate, on the other hand, believes that he is innocent and does not deserve such a reprimand, and accuses his boss of harbouring a specific animosity for him and all the people in his area, casting doubt on his perspective of all those who like him.

This bread will cause mutual distrust and animosity, affecting productivity and administrative functions within the organisation.

To avoid this terrible circumstance, healthy man-to-man guidance must be clearly conveyed. The following factors influence the effectiveness of providing clear instructions.

The instructions should be complete, indicating what needs to be done, the desired level of performance, and when the assignment is due.

Compliance should be reasonable. That is with the capacity of the individual receiving the instruction under the conditions that existed at the time.

The executive providing the order should make it apparent that his views can be transferred to the person being directed.
The main point of the major instruction should be documented (where possible).

The Objectives of the Study
However, the name above refers to the goals or objectives that the communication wishes to reach in the fields of administration, organisation, and some institutions.

As a result, many individuals and organisations would benefit from studying communication as a necessary instrument for good administration.

1.3.1 Students of public administration will find this scholarship work particularly fascinating in the course of the study on communication.

More importantly, all Nigerian tertiary institutions will find this study to be very useful and valuable, as well as a tool for good administration within their institutions.

Finally, the researcher seeks information regarding communication, such as the importance, methods, patterns, and challenges to effective communication in a company and public service organisation or administration.

Significance of the Study

The organisation functions through the collective acts of its members, and each individual is capable of doing autonomous actions that may not be appropriately reported to those who should be aware of them. Effective communication is necessary to obtain a coordinated outcome.

Effective communication fosters positive relationships between individual workers and management since his terms and conditions of employment are clearly stated in his contract of employment and employee handbook.

Communication creates an environment conducive to achieving organisational goals, enhancing employee morale, and increasing productivity.

The following operation in terms of ideas, facts, views, information, and understanding is the transfer or transmission of information and comprehension from one person to another.

Communication can also be defined as a meaningful relationship between humans; more specifically, it is the process by which meaning is read, perceived, and understood.

A word communication can be defined as a transmission of ideas from sender to receiver. Communication can also be viewed as an essential management tool. Any means by which an individual transfers meaning, ideas, feelings, emotions, or attitudes to another in communication.

Effectiveness: The achievement of the targeted goal.

Administration: The structure of an organisation within which people function. It understands the day-to-day meaning of an organisation.


Employees are individuals who are hired for a specified period of time or to execute activities in exchange for a specific reward. Employees are any organization’s personnel and are commonly referred to as “the work force” or human resources.

Transfer is the relocation of an employee from one employment to another. One unit to another, or one shift to another, which may require a different geographical location. It could be emulated by the organisation.

Demotion is a sort of transfer that results in a reduction in salary, position, privileges, or opportunity. It could be the outcome of an organization’s staff reduction, disciplinary fines, or the employees’ failure to perform effectively in a specific role.

Promotion: This is a form of move that involves increased salary. Increased responsibility, privileges, advantages, and opportunities.
Receiver: the individual to whom a communication is transmitted.

Communicator: The one sending the message.

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