CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL development
CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
2.1 Review of Literature
There should be existing work in the form of literatures to support the researcher in a research task of this nature. However, there are a lot of them. However, this research work in conjunction with the current literature in this field of study will contribute to the body of knowledge on the issue.
2.2 Child Abuse in Nigeria and Its Causes
Various forms of child abuse have characterised the history of previous societies. From a Western perspective, child abuse encompasses a variety of maltreatments of children, most notably functions relating to specific responsibilities as child labor, such as “framework” or “street hawking,” which many African children embark on as an acquired work role in an extended family system. However, the focus of this study is on child hawking and how it affects the child's educational development.
Physical abuse is one facet of child maltreatment that has piqued the interest of researchers (Gill 2000; Abbee 2000).
As a result, the who issue of kid hawking necessitates a full examination for the purposes of term justification. Child hawking and neglect, according to C.P Ekpe and Bowls (2006), are acts of commission or omission that impede with children's ability to develop their normal human potential. He went on to define child hawking as “physical or mental injury, negligent treatment, or maltreatment.”
In this situation, the child suffers from a lack of parental attention, which manifests as hunger and a lack of stimulation. Chris proposed that any definition of child abuse should take into account the type of abuse, which includes physical assault, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.
According to Ewuruigwe and Naidu (2008), there is a direct link between child hawking and poverty. They discovered that the desire for survival frequently drives some youngsters to seek employment outside the family.
According to Naidu (2004), poverty and irregularity are the major causes of child labor, and all other factors of child labor, such as psychological, social, and cultural factors, are interdependent with the economic system in which these factors operate.
“Ewuruijwe (1998) identified the causes of child labor, and all other factors of child labor, such as psychological, social, and cultural factors, are interdependent with the economic system in which these factors operate.” Ewuruigwe (1998) highlighted several elements as the causes of child hawking. Poverty, the appeal of global network capitalism, evolving family structures, the character of the state and mode of production, and religion, in his words.
According to Egbigbo (2002), in the eastern and western portions of Nigeria, youngsters trade for their housemaids and parents to help with the family economics. Some people earn their school fees by hawking; those who go to afternoon schools hawk in the morning, while those who go to morning schools hawk in the afternoon.
Naidu and Obikeze (1986) emphasised the relevance of culture in child upbringing when discussing the cultural side of child maltreatment. Obikeze stated that children in Nigeria are raised in such a way that they are forced to practise or do domestic duties that are commensurate with their age, social status, and physical capacity. These activities aim to offer the child the necessary supplementary skills and training for future life.
According to Vinolia and Fubara (1996), our child rearing practise in Nigeria has been influenced by our culture/ethnic environment as well as our social class. Each socioeconomic class, like ethnic groupings, has its own set of societal values and expectations.
They went on to say that because children are viewed as a gift from God, African parents have too many children in order to have a large number of carers. In her study on Kano cultural customs, Schilakrout (1998) claimed that “while a clear relationship scale exists among the majority of families in the middle income range, many cultural factors intervene that are independent of economic factors.”
Furthermore, in a poll conducted by prime people magazine (Jan 26th and Feb 1st 2003), nearly half of the respondents (50%) agreed that female hawkers entice men with their hawking attire.
This, they claim, has occasionally resulted in the ungodly act of rape and early unwanted pregnancy among female hawkers.
Indeed, many researchers believe that the nature of society influences child labor, and that child labour has recently become a tool of class oppression. Despite the mounting incidences of child abuse around the world, leaders everywhere have not thrown up their hands in solidarity.
On November 20, 1959, the United Nations 44th generation assembly accepted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention has been variously described and magina carts or “bill of rights: for children, it has fifty four (54) articles detailing the individual rights of any person under the age of eighteen (18) years to develop to his or her full potential free from hunger and want, neglect, exploitation, or other abuses.
Four of the treaty articles require signature countries, including Nigeria, to recognise that every child has an intrinsic right to life and to secure the child's full survival and development. Nigeria signed on to this convention in 1980. However, twenty years before the federal government implemented the Children and Young People Act, Section 31 of the 1958 Act prohibited street dealing among children.
Apart from a penalty and firm of N10,000.000 or six (6)months jail terms of both for an offender, the law also states that if a parent or guardian of a child contributes to the willful default of law, such parent may be fined N10,000.000 or in default or payment of three (3) months jails on conviction.
Based on these declarations at home and abroad, it is now a legal requirement that a kid get assistance before reaching his full potential and be safeguarded from any hazards. A child has the right to good food, education, good health, shelter, and free play.
He also has the right to participate in decisions affecting him, based on his capacity, and the child's interests should be considered when such decisions are made.
As a result, any severe violation of any of these rights by a community, an individual, or a nation is considered insulting.
The African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN) also drafted the African character on the rights and welfare of the child, which was adopted by the African Union (A.U).
The African Union (A.U) then went to a head and named “June 16th of every year as the day of the African child.” This was also on the agenda of a recent A.U. meeting in Abuja, Nigeria.
Street trading and child labour have become a worldwide phenomena and concern.
According to the United Nations International Children's Education Fund (UNICEF), there are between 100 and 200 million child labourers in both developed and developing countries.
According to estimates for Africa, 20% of children aged 10 to 14 are participating in child work and street trade. As a result, children now account for 17% of Africa's entire labour force. It is believed that between 12 and 15 million children work in Nigeria alone. According to Human Rights Watch (2004), India has the world's largest child labour force at 15 million, followed by Pakistan with 7.5 million and Senegal with 500,000.
Several causes have contributed to the huge increase in child labour and street selling in Nigeria. Many affluent countries' fast population expansion, high rates of unemployment, inflation, poor salaries, and horrible working conditions have all contributed to incidences of street trade and child labour as children try to support their families. (Charles and Charles, 2004, Deth, 1993). Arat (2002) attributes the growth of industries to an increase in street commerce and juvenile employment.
Children's social ills have been the focus of ongoing empirical research. There are various research on children who are homeless with their parents, as well as children who hawk in the street before, after, and on weekends and holidays. This research will highlight the dangers of street dealing and child work as stated by children who participate in these activities.
The primary goal will be to identify the health, educational, and social repercussions of street dealing and child employment in the Beyalsa State city of Yenegoa.
In certain circumstances, children work to assist their parents or families in financial trouble by paying for some or all of the family's rent, food, clothing, utilities, and so on. In addition to these costs, official estimates place the number of children under the age of 14 working to pay for school at 8 million. (fos, 2008).
According to the same estimates, around one (1) million youngsters have been forced to drop out of school because their parents demand that they do so in order to increase the family's income. These numbers will almost probably have an impact on the nation's manpower development and human resources.