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This research looked into the causes and solutions for students’ poor shorthand and typewriting proficiency. – A comparison research of three selected educational tertiary institutions in Enugu College of Education Metropolis was conducted with the primary goal of determining ways to enhance students’ weak shorthand and typewriting capabilities.

This emphasis is on taking quick notes, transcribing, and creating accurate, clean work in both academic and office settings. It is also intended to raise awareness about the importance of shorthand and typewriting in everyday operations in all sectors of the economy.

To obtain real facts and information, pertinent literature was reviewed, as well as the thoughts and opinions of various specialists and experts. Furthermore, several selected institutions were sampled, and 100 copies of the questionnaires were distributed to both students and professors. Several issues were discovered during the research process, including students’ attitudes towards the subjects, insufficient knowledge of the use of the English language, lack of concentration, insufficient equipment, and improper representation of shorthand outlines insufficient guidance and counselling.

As a result, the researchers believe that all of the recommendations outlined in Chapter 5 of this study, such as the authorities of all institutions making an effort to provide adequate shorthand and typewriting facilities for students, if accepted and implemented, will help to reduce and/or solve students’ poor performance in shorthand and typewriting subjects in general.



1.1 The Study’s Background

“Shorthand has come a long way from the days when dictation was taken by making signs on clay tablets or stones,” according to American Encyclopaedia International (1956:356). During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, John Robert Cregy employed shorthand to fast write information.

The publication of shorthand boot light Inc phonograph (1888) and sir Isaac Pitman (1837), along with other inventors of shorthand books, led to the worldwide acceptance of shorthand. As humanity progresses towards civilization, the importance of effective communication cannot be overstated.

Communicating with one another has been found to make the world go round. Communication, as Herbert (1976:53) defined it, is the act of transferring meaning or knowledge from one person to another (the link, 1992). Communication is the lifeblood of all human organisations. No organisation can exist or survive without communication; it is a management and coordination tool.

It is nearly universally agreed that technological advancements in recording, writing, and processing may only supplement the duties of a confidential secretary in cases of extreme urgency and acute necessity. It does not follow, however, that these media can completely replace the work of confidential secretaries, hence the demand for shorthand writers, typists, and secretaries in all parts of the business world.

Shorthand is the art of writing quickly and legibly using characters or signs instead of traditional letters or worlds. Shorthand is defined as “a method of writing rapidly with quickly made symbols” by the Oxford English Mini Dictionary (1995).

It is said that shorthand is one of the cornerstone subjects of business education system of shorthand, which are generally phonetic and based on speech, sounds, dateline circles, dashes, and other easy way to write characters for recording sounds, syllabus, and phrases frequently used. To name a few, inventors of shorthand include Sir Isaac Pitman, Thomas Allen, and Emily D. Smith (B. Sc).

In 1837, Sir Isaac Pitman devised the phonographic representation of spoken sound. The purpose of pitman shorthand is the most widely used international system today because the pitman’s involves a lot of memory load in its mastery, a modified system known as the pitman 2000 shorthand is gradually being adopted by most colleges of education and other tertiary institutions at the moment to make shorthand much easier and enjoyable to master and apply. As a result, Emily D. Smith (B Sc) Economics, who has an unrivalled speed of 250 words per minute, offered her quote to the creation of shorthand writing.

TYPEWRITING: Typewriting is a mechanical (both manually and electrically) method of converting shorthand and other manuscripts into readable and neater form by employing keyboard equipment. Christopher Sholes invented the first known working manual typewriter in 1920. Despite the fact that he could only type in capital letters, he was given credit for the first typewritten document. The manual typewriter, as the name implies, is a type of typewriter that is operated manually rather than using electricity. It has a keyboard with letters A-Z, numbers 0-9, and other functional keys that have the same impact as other keys when pressed.

ELECTRIC TYPEWRITER: In 1934, IBM was the first company to manufacture an electric typewriter. Electric typewriters are classified into three types:

(a) The standard type is the Bar Electric typewriter.

(b) Typewriter with a single element. IBM Electric originally brought it on the market in 1961. The face of the sphere is embossed with alphabets, figures, and special symbols.

(c) Proportional: typewriter spacing. The machine generates copy that nearly matches material print.

Shorthand and typewriting are both subjects in secretarial studies or administration. Shorthand is a distinct subject that aims to record spoken words as quickly as possible. It is concerned with sound rather than longhand English spelling. Typewriting is concerned with speed and precision in using keyboards, as well as efficiency in using the machine to produce tidy and neatly organised words for effective communication.

It also addresses the mastery of a large amount of related technical material as well as the improvement of the learner’s language skills. The competence attained by a particular student is determined by his intrinsic learning ability, motor coordination, aggressiveness, and a variety of other personal traits.

Shorthand and typewriting duties have become indispensible in corporate organisations, law courts, legislative procedures, public office, and conferences. Some experts, court reporters have been known to reach 150 words per minute, which improves the speed of proceedings in the law courts. Shorthand reporters have now replaced the services of electronic recording equipment that was previously supposed to be utilised in our parliamentary chambers.

A journalist’s reportorial ability is supported by knowledge and understanding of the theory and practise of shorthand writing. The federal government of Nigeria recognised this need and, in order to encourage confidential secretaries, established allowances for typists and confidential secretaries who perform their tasks properly and efficiently.

Shorthand and typewriting have proven effective for both occupational and private purposes, and they play critical roles in the duties of many professionals both within and outside of business education. Many writers and individuals use shorthand and typewriting to do their work. Shorthand and typewriting have become to Nigerians and the global business world what yeast is to bread.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The researchers are concerned that if pupils do not understand the fundamentals of typing and shorthand, their performance would suffer.

Second, they are unable to work efficiently in an office with current technological equipment such as computers.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The project’s overarching goal is to analyse the causes of students’ poor performance in typewriting and shorthand. More specifically, the study aims to:

1. Explain the history of typewriting and shorthand.

2. emphasises the significance of typewriting and shorthand

3. Look into the source of the student’s poor typewriting and shorthand performance.

1.4 Importance Of The Study

The findings of this study will be extremely beneficial to secretarial students in Enugu metropolis’ schools of education, as well as business education and other research. Essentially, the study’s significance comprises

1. The research will aid in improving the efficacy and efficiency of business education in the teaching of typing and shorthand.

2. The research will assist secretarial students in learning about various techniques of learning and ways to improve their performance.

3. The research will also serve to educate the general public on the relevance of typing, writing, and shorthand in the business environment.

The information gathered from the three selected institutes of education, such as:

1. Eha-Amufu Federal College of Education.

2. Enugu State Technical College of Education

Nsukka National College of Education

To assess the level of a student’s poor performance in shorthand and typewriting disciplines.

1.5 Research Issues

1. What are the causes of pupils’ poor shorthand and typewriting performance?

2. How important are shorthand and typewriting in vocational education?

3. To what extent are shorthand and typewriting useful in modern technology?

1.6 Definition Of Terms

Certain terms in shorthand and typewriting have specific connotations and, if not defined, may be misread by readers; such notions as those listed below are utilised.

TYPEWRITING: The act of producing documents such as letters and memos using a typewriter. It is also known as a mechanical writing style that leads in extra copies of documents being created.

TYPEWRITER: A manual or electrical machine used by a typist or secretary to help them do their work in a clear and neat manner.

DRILLING: Any sound vowel and consonant combination should be written numerous times to represent a word or phrase to be learnt and to assist speedy writing.

PHRASING: The art of connecting two or more words without raising the pen/pencil.

WORDS PER MINUTE: The amount of words a shorthand writer or typewriter can correctly write or type in one minute.

DICTATION: This is the process of reading out passages for the shorthand writer to record as soon as possible.

TRANSCRIPTION: It is the transcription of a shorthand note into English.

MANUSCRIPTS: A handwritten paragraph that the typist is intended to generate in a neater copy using a typewriter.

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