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Banjiram was one of the settlements relocated in 1980 to make way for the construction of the Kiri dam, which would supply water for irrigation to the Savannah Company. The Federal Government then cleared and surveyed an alternative place (currently New Banjiram) as part of the relocation programme.

A cadastral survey was performed, and plots were physically defined on the ground with beacons at each corner. Land rights were passed down verbally, and evidence of such rights was dependent on the knowledge of community elders and village heads. With rising population and resulting competition for land, there has been widespread tenure insecurity, resulting in conflicts and litigation over land ownership.

One of the most essential documents, a paper-based cadastral layout of the area containing defined lots, has been rotting in the cabinet of the Adamawa state Ministry of Lands and Survey.

This study aims to carry out cadastral mapping of Banjirm utilising Remote Sensing and GIS with the goal of building a digital cadastral Information System that can integrate the map and the record of ownership and use.

The cadastral layout of the research region was scanned and georeferenced in ArcGIS 10.1 to do this. After that, parcels were digitally defined (digitised) and assigned unique identity numbers.

A fieldwork was conducted to determine the existing land rights through a participatory adjudication procedure in order to gather the textual component of the cadastre (land ownership and usage information).

The adjudication process included team visits to each parcel by the researcher, a representative of the traditional leaders, and a member of the Land Owners Union. To make the procedure easier,

land owners and witnesses (adjoining land owners) were shown remotely-sensed imagery (Google Earth image) with digitised parcels with unique numbers overlay to clearly identify their parcels and present their claims.

To record information about landowners and parcels, a questionnaire (adjudication form) was employed. A digital camera was also used to picture each landowner's passport. Using the information acquired from the fieldwork, a cadastral database (including a computerised record of land owners and their parcels) was constructed and built.

The database's efficiency was then analysed and tested, and a range of outcomes were provided. The following are the major conclusions of this study: (i) there were 1278 parcels with 1166 owners; (ii) about 1086 (84.977%) parcels were allocated whereas 192 (15.023%) parcels were not allotted;

(iii) There were 865 (67.762%) developed parcels and 413 (32.238%) undeveloped parcels. (iv) Of the 1278 plots examined, 758 (31.91%) were discovered to be used for residential purposes, 32 (20.016%) for institutional purposes, 11 (2.431%) for commercial purposes, 158 (14.2%) for agricultural purposes, and 301 (31.408%) for mixed uses.

Land is a valuable resource that serves as the foundation of wealth in many communities, whether urban or . Land has provided people with food, shelter, , resources, cultural and requirements. The cornerstone of all human endeavour is land. The human-land link is important to human survival (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), 2005).

Land disputes have been implicated as a source of civil and international warfare, as well as genocide (Bell, 2011). Conflicts over ownership, land grabs, social discord, yield reductions, lower food security, weak land markets, and severe environmental impacts are related with regions having poor land information management systems (McLaren, 2011).

Current and reliable land information in terms of ownership, land use, and value is required for: ensuring the security of property rights; reducing litigation and reducing court workload;

improving land assessment and taxation; improving information base for planning and administration; improving map production (such as base maps, utility asset maps, zone maps, and so on);

facilitating land transactions; establishing a transparent and operational land market; and reducing corruption. The cadastre is fundamental to land information management (Andersson, 1986).

A cadastre is defined by the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG, 1995) as a parcel-based and up-to-date land information system incorporating a record of land interests (e.g. rights, constraints, and obligations).

Williamson and Ting (1999) identified three types of cadastre: fiscal cadastre (used to generate revenue through taxation); legal or judicial cadastre (used to protect property ownership rights);

and multi-purpose cadastre (used for utility management, planning, environmental management, and other purposes). The cadastral map created through cadastral mapping is the central component of cadastres, Cadastral information systems, or Land Information Systems.

Land registration is synonymous with cadastre and cadastral mapping. Land registration, according to McLaughlin and Nichols (1989), is the process of documenting legally recognised interests in land.

The overarching goal of land registration is to create a cadastre (Jing, 2011). Adjudication is critical to land registration. The term adjudication was initially used in the 1950s to indicate the methodical determination of land rights (Lawrence, 1985).

Adjudication is the initial stage of land registration that aims to formalise land by identifying land rights, demarcating cadastral surveying, and mapping (Dale and McLaughlin, 1999).

Adjudication occurs in two situations: when no previous registration information is available or when the prior information has become obsolete and of poor quality (Jing, 2011).

Cadastral mapping can be defined as the process and methods of constructing information on land. Cadastres and cadastral mapping systems have traditionally been manual and paper-based (Borzacchiello & Craglia, ).

They included a numerical/diagrammatic description (a graphical representation of land parcels) and a separate land registration list (which included a list of names and rights of property holders) (Zevenbergen, 2002). To connect the map with the register, indexing schemes were utilised.

Recent advances in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) and web-based GIS, internet communications, band width, and transmission speeds have necessitated and enabled the development of digital cadastres and cadastral mapping systems that allow the map and the register to be integrated into a single system (a digital cadastral map (database)) (Sutherland & Nichols, 2002).

The application of Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry in land rights adjudication benefits substantially from the development of Geo-information technologies (GIT) (Jing, 2011). In many parts of the world, remotely sensed georeferenced orthophotos have been employed for adjudication (Meijs, Kapintango, and Witmer 2009).

Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) have thus become critical geometric tools for the development of digital cadastral systems (Albert, Edmund, Merem, & Yaw, 2006). According to Elayachi and Semlali (2001),

a digital cadastral map is not a typical map, but one in which attribute (tabular) and map (graphic) data on cadastral units are maintained in the same database.

They went on to say that a computerised cadastral map registers each parcel and its owners, as well as describes all spatial structures such as location, borders, and contents.

While Western nations are making progress in creating multi-purpose cadastres to assist sustainable development, developing countries are only now beginning to construct more official cadastral records for fiscal or other purposes.

Cadastral mapping land/registration and administration in Nigeria suffer from a lack of proper technology in surveying and the mapping sector, among other things.

Cadastral maps are old and outdated, and modernization efforts are limited to metropolitan areas and are still in the early stages (Oboli & Akpoyoware, 2010).

Only a few states have computerised land information, notably Lagos, Kano, and the Federal Capital Territory (Bell, 2011). The majority of land in Northern Nigeria is held under a customary system, with no cadastral mapping or land title registration (Usman, 2010).

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