Project Materials

GENERAL

BLOOD PRESSURE LIFESTYLE AND BMI OF OLDER ADULTS IN ODOGBOLU

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PROJECT INFORMATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Recent studies show that so many disease and conditions have been closely associated with aging and a high blood pressure (hypertension)such as cardiovascular diseases(CVD),diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases. Overweight and obesity increase the risk of elevated blood pressure which is significantly associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As body mass index increases there is tendency for a commensurate increased risk of hypertension. Hypertension is defined as high blood pressure greater than 140/90mmHg.

Worldwide, obesity (high body mass index) has been estimated to be a leading cause of death. Being overweight predisposes one to having a high blood pressure, certain heart diseases and some cancers which progresses as one ages. Mortality rate increases with increasing degrees of overweight, Obesity being a non-communicable disease is seen as a symbol of beauty and virility commonly seen amongst certain tribes like the the Annang indigenes of Akwa Ibom. The rise in standard of living and increasing changes in lifestyle in a country such as Nigeria, has posed a threat to the health of the citizens as this has led to weight gain and obesity in subsequent years.Several studies show that due to the process of modernization and rapid economic development there is a rapid increase in the cases of hypertension which is due to the loss of flexibility of the blood muscles as a result of the deposition of fats (high BMI) and aging.

Body mass index (BMI) is positively and independently associated with morbidity and mortality from hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases.8 In Caucasian populations, a strong association has been depicted between BMI and mortality.

The relationship between BMI and BP has long been the subject of epidemiological research.

Aging is an inevitable part of life and brings along two inconvenient events: physiologic decline and disease state. Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. It is a significant and often asymptomatic chronic disease, which requires optimal control and persistent adherence to prescribed medication to reduce the risks of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disease. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to cardiovascular (CV) specialists and other practioners. Furthermore, with the wide adoption of multiple drug strategies targeting subgroups of hypertensive patients with specific risk conditions to lower blood pressure (BP) beyond traditional goals, difficult questions arise about how aggressive elderly patients should be treated.

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